Jak powstała litera zapisywana znakiem Qq, czyli przykład od-semickiego zapożyczenia i zniekształcenia pierwotnego pra-słowiańskiego wzorca dźwiękowego, występującego w językach kreolskich, jak np. tzw. łacina i greka.
Na szybko zapisuję, na co przez przypadek wpadłem. Proszę zwrócić uwagę na drogę zapożyczania tego znaku i jego wykorzystania do zapisu dźwięku… no właśnie jakiego?
Tym razem od tyłu…
Qoph or Qop (Phoenician Qōp ) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads. Aramaic Qop is derived from the Phoenician letter, and derivations from Aramaic include Hebrew Qof ק, Syriac Qōp̄ ܩ and Arabic Qāf ق.
The origin of the glyph shape of qōp () is uncertain. It is usually suggested to have originally depicted either a sewing needle, specifically the eye of a needle (the Hebrew קוף means „hole”), or the back of a head and neck (qāf in Arabic meant „nape„). According to an older suggestion, it may also have been a picture of a monkey and its tail.
Besides Aramaic Qop, which gave rise to the letter in the Semitic abjads used in classical antiquity, Phoenician qōp is also the origin of the Latin letter Q and Greek Ϙ (qoppa) and Φ (phi).
The Arabic letter ق is named قاف qāf. It is written is several ways depending in its position in the word:
|Position in word:||Isolated||Final||Medial||Initial|
It is usually transliterated into Latin script as q, though some scholarly works use ḳ.
According to Sibawayh, author of the first book on Arabic grammar, the letter is pronounced as a voiced phoneme. As noted above, Modern Standard Arabic has the voiceless uvular plosive /q/ as its standard pronunciation of the letter, but dialectical pronunciations vary as follows:
- [q]: In Druze dialects, most of the variants of Maghrebi, Northern Mesopotamian Arabic, a number of Yemeni accents, and partially in Gulf Arabic.
- [ɡ]: In Hejazi Arabic, Najdi Arabic, Gulf Arabic, Libyan Arabic, rural Jordan, Southern Mesopotamian Arabic and some forms of Yemeni and Sa’idi Arabic (of Southern Egypt) and partially in Maghrebi dialects.
- [ʔ]: In Egyptian Arabic, as well as Levantine Arabic and forms of Algerian Arabic and Moroccan Arabic from around Tlemcen and Fes respectively.
- [ɢ]: In Sudanese Arabic and some forms of Yemeni Arabic.
- [k]: In rural Palestinian Arabic it is often pronounced as a voiceless velar plosive [k].
- [d͡ʒ]: Optionally in Iraqi and in Gulf Arabic, it is sometimes pronounced as a voiced postalveolar affricate [d͡ʒ].
Note, however, that most dialects of Arabic do use the sound [q] for this letter when it is found in learned words borrowed from standard Arabic into the respective dialect. (…)
Q jest siedemnastą literą alfabetu łacińskiego (pochodzi od greckiej litery koppa). W językach europejskich prawie zawsze występuje w połączeniu qu, oznaczającym dźwięk [kw] lub [kv]. W transliteracji języka arabskiego oznacza [q] (w oryginalnej pisowni ﻕ), w języku maltańskim – zwarcie krtaniowe.
The Semitic sound value of Qôp (perhaps originally qaw, „cord of wool”, and possibly based on an Egyptian hieroglyph) was /q/ (voiceless uvular stop), a sound common to Semitic languages, but not found in English or most Indo-European ones. In Greek, this sign as Qoppa Ϙ probably came to represent several labialized velar stops, among them /kʷ/ and /kʷʰ/. As a result of later sound shifts, these sounds in Greek changed to /p/ and /pʰ/ respectively. Therefore, Qoppa was transformed into two letters: Qoppa, which stood for a number only, and Phi Φ which stood for the aspirated sound /pʰ/ that came to be pronounced /f/ in Modern Greek.
In the earliest Latin inscriptions, the letters C, K and Q were all used to represent the two sounds /k/ and /ɡ/, which were not differentiated in writing. Of these, Q was used before a rounded vowel (e.g. ⟨EQO⟩ ‚ego’), K before /a/, and C elsewhere. Later, the use of C (and its variant G) replaced most usages of K and Q: Q survived only to represent /k/ when immediately followed by a /w/ sound. The Etruscans used Q in conjunction with V to represent /kʷ/. (…)
Przypomnę, że np. QueeN / K(L”)o”iN, to wcześnie KueeN / K(L”)o”iN, a jeszcze wcześniej GueeN / G(L”)o”iN, a jeszcze wcześniej Z”o”iN, Z”oNa, ale także i JoNi,.. itp, patrz:
Pojawienie się znaków Qq (i Ff) odzwierciedla pojawienie się zapożyczeń od-semickich w tzw. grece, etruskim, łacinie itd.