145 Shield / SHieLD, jako Target / TaRG+eT – Giermański Drag / DRaG i jego pierwotne Pra-Słowiańskie źródłosłowy i znaczenia, czyli tragiczne targnięcie się na najświętsze świętości ofitzjalnego jęsykosnaftzfa 15

kuźnia (1.1)

…..

Oto dalszy ciąg poprzedniego wpisu, w którym zajmę się porównaniem kolejnych słów związanymi ze pojęciem Kuć / Ko’C’, jak np. Kużnia / Ko’Z’Nia, czy wg Mię także i Kaźń / KaZ’N’,.. ale także i Cud / Co’D.

Proszę zwrócić uwagę szczególnie na słowa z języków innych niż j. słowiański, które w różny sposób wtórnie jakoś zniekształciły się od rzekomych postaci tego odtfoszonego Proto-Indo-European *kowh₂-, from the root *kewh₂-. itd.

Poniżej kolejne ciekawe dane do porównania i następne zupełnie nieodpowiednie i z gruntu niesłuszne pytania, np:

Dlaczego Kuć / Ko’C’ jakoś dziwnie NIE SPALATELIZOWAŁO się od postaci *kowh₂-*kewh₂-, czyli nie udźwięczniło się w coś jak Cuć / Co’C’,.. czy coś jak np. łacińskie Cudo / Co’Do, hm? (Wiem, wiem,.. to tylko taki zapis, no ale co z Kalendale, itp?

Czy to nie dziwne, że odtfoszone postacie tzw. Indo-Iranian, Indo-Arian, Sanskrit, jakoś dziwnie TAKŻE NIE SPALATELIZOWAŁY SIE, patrz poniżej?

Dlaczego to odtfoszone Pra-Słowiańskie Cudo / Co’Do nie brzmi coś jak Tudo / To’Do, Tudzo / ToDzo, czy Ksudo / KSo’Do, czy coś jak np. : PIE root *(s)kewh₁- > *(s)kuh₁-é-t(thematic „tudati„-type root present) > Indo-Iranian: *kuHáti  > Indo-Aryan: *kuHátiSanskrit: आकुवते (ākuváteto intend) > *(s)kowh₁-is > Indo-Iranian: *káwiš > Indo-Iranian: *ā́kuHtamIndo-Aryan: *ā́kuHtamSanskrit: आकूत (ā́kūta), hm?

A może zwykłym wytłumaczeniem tego stanu jest to, że w języku Pra-Słowiańskim PS=PIE ISTNIAŁY OBA TE SŁOWA, i Kuć / Ko’C’ i Cud / Co’D,.. oznaczające coś w sumie zupełnie innego?

No chyba, że słowo Cud / Co’D ma związek z „cudownie” magiczną przemianą kamieni w metal, patrz obróbka metalu przez wytop, a następnie przez Kucie / Ko’Cie właśnie? No ale co to w sumie zmienia, hm?

Wszystkim zwolennikom rzekomych tzw. zapożyczeń od-irańskich (scytyjsko-sarmacko-alańsko-osetyjsko-hukwiejakich) podpowiadam, żeby przyjrzeli się tym wszystkim innym jednak jakoś dziwnie spalatelizowanym, udźwięcznionym postaciom odtfoszonym, jak i atestowanym, czyli zapisanym i odczytanym z sindo-irańskich źródeł… Więcej takich przykładów upowszechnię w następnej części.

Dr Makuch, dr Jamroszko, Tchórzliwy Grzegorz, Sławomir Ambroziak i inni allo-allo zwolennicy tej, czy innych podobnych teorii, nie popartych niczym innym jak przeciw-słowiańskimi uprzedzeniami i przeciw-logicznymi wymysłami, czy domniemaniami wziętymi z księżyca, czy innego głębokiego naugofeko gohmohu… DO ROBOTY! :-0

Czy to nie dziwne, że w ofitzjalnych jęsykosnaftzów odtfasza się rzekome pradawne słowa w różny sposób, ale zawsze tak, żeby pasowały pod rzekome pierwszeństwo postaci ubezdźwięcznionych, tzw. kentum, patrz np. to Ancient Greek κδος  (kûdos) / Ko’D+oS?

Ok, to niby nie tak, bo wg obecnie ofitzjalego wytłumaczenia nic takiego jak postacie tzw. satem i tzw. kentum nie istniały w czasach tego rzekomego odtfoszonego tzw. PIE. Wtedy niby było tak, że różne dźwięki łączyły się, raz tak, raz siak, po ty by w końcu oddzielnie dać postacie i tzw. kentum i tzw., satem…

No tak… Tylko dlaczego i tak odtfasza się wszystko jako postacie ubezdźwięcznione, no chyba że nieśmiało z takim małym malutkim dodateczkiem w postaci dźwięku zapisywanego znakiem S, patrz (s)..?

Mowa tu jest o tzw. ruchomym S

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_s-mobile


In Indo-European studies, the term s-mobile (/ˈmbɪl/; the word is a Latin neuter adjective) designates the phenomenon where a PIE root appears to begin with an *s- which is sometimes but not always present. It is therefore represented in the reflex of the root in some attested derivatives but not others. (…) 


Coś tam niby syczące wysokoenergetycznie  jednak było, albo mogło być tu i ówdzie w nagłosie w tym tzw. PIE, patrz np. to:

Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/čudo

Proto-Slavic

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *(s)kéwdos. A possible cognate is Ancient Greek κδος (kûdos).

…..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Indo-European_phonology

Proto-Indo-European phonology

The phonology of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) has been reconstructed by linguists, based on the similarities and differences among current and extinct Indo-European languages. Because PIE was not written, linguists must rely on the evidence of its earliest attested descendants, such as HittiteSanskritAncient Greek, and Latin, to reconstruct its phonology.

The reconstruction of abstract units of PIE phonological systems (i.e. segments, or phonemes in traditional phonology) is mostly uncontroversial, although areas of dispute remain. Their phonetic interpretation is harder to establish; this pertains especially to the vowels, the so-called laryngeals, and the voiced stops.

(…)

Fricatives


The only certain PIE fricative phoneme *s was a strident sound, whose phonetic realization could range from [s] to palatalized [ɕ] or [ʃ]. It had a voiced allophone *z that emerged by assimilation in words such as *nisdós (‚nest’), and which later became phonemicized in some daughter languages. Some PIE roots have variants with *s appearing initially: such *s is called s-mobile.

The „laryngeals” may have been fricatives, but there is no consensus as to their phonetic realization.


Laryngeals


The phonemes *h₁, *h₂, *h₃, with cover symbol H also denoting „unknown laryngeal” (or *ə₁, *ə₂, *ə₃ and /ə/), stand for three „laryngeal” phonemes. The term laryngeal as a phonetic description is out of date, retained only because its usage has become standard in the field.

The phonetic values of the laryngeal phonemes are disputable; various suggestions for their exact phonetic value have been made, ranging from cautious claims that all that can be said with certainty is that *h₂ represented a fricative pronounced far back in the mouth, and that *h₃ exhibited lip-rounding up to more definite proposal; e.g. Meier-Brügger writes that realizations of *h₁ = [h]*h₂ = [χ] and *h₃ = [ɣ]  or [ɣʷ] „are in all probability accurate”.[4] Another commonly cited speculation for *h₁ *h₂ *h₃ is [ʔ ʕ ʕʷ] (e.g. Beekes). Simon (2013)[5] has argued that the Hieroglyphic Luwian sign *19 stood for /ʔa/ (distinct from /a/) and represents the reflex of *h₁. It is possible, however, that all three laryngeals ultimately fell together as a glottal stop in some languages. Evidence for this development in Balto-Slavic comes from the eventual development of post-vocalic laryngeals into a register distinction commonly described as „acute” (vs. „circumflex” register on long vocalics not initially closed by a laryngeal) and marked in some fashion on all long syllables, whether stressed or not; furthermore, in some circumstances original acute register is reflected by a „broken tone” (i.e. glottalized vowel) in modern Latvian.

The schwa indogermanicum symbol *ə is sometimes used for a laryngeal between consonants, in a „syllabic” position.

(…)

Reflexes


Ancient Greek reflects the original PIE vowel system most faithfully, with few changes to PIE vowels in any syllable; but its loss of certain consonants, especially *s, *w and *y, often triggered a compensatory lengthening or contraction of vowels in hiatus, which can complicate reconstruction.

Sanskrit and Avestan merge *e, *a and *o into a single vowel *a (with a corresponding merger in the long vowels) but reflect PIE length differences (especially from the ablaut) even more faithfully than Greek, and they do not have the same issues with consonant loss as Greek. Furthermore, *o can often be reconstructed by Brugmann’s law and *e by its palatalization of a preceding velar (see Proto-Indo-Iranian language).

Germanic languages show a merger of long and short *a and *o as well as the merger of *e and *i in non-initial syllables, but (especially in the case of Gothic) they are still important for reconstructing PIE vowels. Balto-Slavic languages have a similar merger of short *a and *o, and Slavic languages a merger of long and .

Evidence from Anatolian and Tocharian can be significant because of their conservatism but are often difficult to interpret; Tocharian, especially, has complex and far-reaching vowel innovations. 


(…)

O czym tak naprawdę jest powyżej napisane, jak nie o tym, że NIC NIE JEST OFITZJALNIE W SUMIE PEWNE, A JEDYNIE JAKOŚ SOBIE UMOWNIE, CZY DOWOLNIE TAK, CZY SRAK ODTFOSZENE,.. albo i nie, hm?

My Słowianie / Z/S+L”oW+iaNie, Północno-Wschodni Łowcy / L”oW+Cy EHG Lisy / LiSy Z Lasu / LaSo’, Lesu / LeSo’,.. Lesi / LeSi, Leszi / LeS”i, Lechi / Le(c)Hi, Lechy / Le(c)Hy , czy jak to wymawiają na wschodzie Lachy / La(c)Hy, kowale naszego losu, kujmy to żelazo puki gorunce na kowadle logiki.

Leżmy / LeZ”+My, Legnijmy / LeG+NiJ+My, Lgnijmy / LG+NiJ+My, Lęg / Le”G W Określonym / o+KReS’+LoN+yM i Ogrodzonym / o+GR+oDz+oNyM Pra-Słowiańskim / PRa+Z/S+L”oW+iaN’+SKiM Okręgu / o+KRe”Go, W Ośrdku / oS’+RoD+Ko’, W Osi / oSi

…..

Kużnia / Ko’Z’Nia

https://pl.wiktionary.org/wiki/ku%C5%BAnia

kuźnia (język polski)

kuźnia (1.1)

 

kuźnia (1.2)

 

kuźnia (1.3)

wymowa:
IPA[ˈkuʑɲa]AS[kuźńa], zjawiska fonetyczne: zmięk.• -ni…
znaczenia:

rzeczownik, rodzaj żeński

(1.1) warsztat kowalazob. też kuźnia w Wikipedii
(1.2) archit. dom z warsztatem kowala
(1.3) techn. wydział fabrykiw którym wykonuje się kucie
(1.4) przen. miejsce powstawania ideiwychowywania kadr
odmiana:
(1.1–4)

przykłady:
(1.1) Aby rozniecić ogień w kuźninależy silnie dmuchać miechem.
kolokacje:
(1.4) kuźnia kadr / talentów
wyrazy pokrewne:
czas. wykuć
tłumaczenia:

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ku%C5%BAnia#Polish

kuźnia

Polish

Etymology


From Proto-Slavic *kuznь / *kuznja, from *ku- (to forge) +‎ *-znь


Noun

kuźnia f

  1. forgesmithy
  2. blacksmith shop

Declension

Further reading

  • kuźnia in Polish dictionaries at PWN

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/kuzn%D1%8C

Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/kuz

Proto-Slavic

Alternative forms

Etymology

From *ku- (to forge) +‎ *-znь

Noun

*kuz f

  1. forgesmithy

Inflection

Derived terms

Related terms

Descendants

References

  • Vasmer, Max (1964–1973), “кузница”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), translated from German and supplemented by Trubačóv O. N., Moscow: Progress
  • Černyx, P. Ja. (1999), “кузнец”, in Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), volume 1, 3rd reprint edition, Moscow: Russkij jazyk, page 450
  • Trubačev O. N., editor (1987), “*kuznja/*kuznь”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 13, Moscow: Nauka, page 144
  • Šanskij, N. M. (2004), “кузнец”, in Školʹnyj etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [School Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), Moscow: Drofa

…..

To jest odnośnik wiodący do *ku-(to forge). Był on już upowszechniany w poprzednim wpisie! 

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/kovati

Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/kovati

Proto-Slavic

Alternative forms

Etymology


From Proto-Balto-Slavic *kauˀ-, from Proto-Indo-European *kowh₂-, from the root *kewh₂-. Cognate with Lithuanian káuti (to hew, to beat, to murder)Latvian kt (to fight)Latin cūdere (to forge, to beat, to grind)Old Norse hǫggva (to hew, to beat)Old High German  houwan (to hew, to beat)Old Irish cuad (to beat, to fight).


Verb

*kovàti impf

  1. to forge

Inflection

Descendants

References

  • Černyx, P. Ja. (1999), “кова́ть”, in Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), volume 1, 3rd reprint edition, Moscow: Russkij jazyk, page 407
  • Derksen, Rick (2008), “*kovàti”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 241–242
  • Vasmer, Max (1964–1973), “кова́ть”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), translated from German and supplemented by Trubačóv O. N., Moscow: Progress
  • Trubačev O. N., editor (1985), “*kovati”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 12, Moscow: Nauka, pages 10–11

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/-n%D1%8C

Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/-nь

Proto-Slavic

Alternative forms

Etymology

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg

This reconstruction page lacks etymological information.

Suffix

*-nь f

  1. Deverbative, creates nouns
    From verbs ending in -V-

    *pěsnь (song) ← *pěti (to sing)
    *basnь (tale) ← *ba- (to tell)
    *žiznь (life) ← *žiti (to live)
    *kuz (forge, smithy) ← *ku (to forge)
    From verbs ending in -a- (-a/V-)

    *kajaznь ← *kajati
    From verbs ending in -ě- (-ě--ě/i-)

    *bojaznь ← *bojati
    *bolěznь ← *bolěti

Declension

See also

Derived terms

Category Proto-Slavic words suffixed with *-nь not found

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:Proto-Slavic_words_suffixed_with_*-sn%D1%8C

Category:Proto-Slavic words suffixed with *-s

Proto-Slavic words ending with the suffix *-snь.

Pages in category „Proto-Slavic words suffixed with *-s

The following 4 pages are in this category, out of 4 total.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:Proto-Slavic_words_suffixed_with_*-zn%D1%8C

Category:Proto-Slavic words suffixed with *-z

Proto-Slavic words ending with the suffix *-znь.

Pages in category „Proto-Slavic words suffixed with *-z

The following 3 pages are in this category, out of 3 total.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/k%D1%8Azn%D1%8C&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Slavic/kъznь.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/kajazn%D1%8C&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Slavic/kajaznь.

…..


UWAGA!!!

NIE ZNALAZŁEM ŻADNYCH SINDO-IRAŃSKICH POSTACI TEGO Proto-Indo-European *kowh₂-, from the root *kewh₂-. Czyżby Ariowie i ich potomkowie, itp nie kuli i nie znali kuźni? To samo z tzw. Celtami, Grekami, itd? Czy to nie dziwne?


…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cudere#Latin

cudere

Latin

Verb

cudere

  1. third-person plural perfect active indicative of cūdō
  2. second-person singular future passive indicative of cūdō

Verb

cudere

  1. present active infinitive of cūdō
  2. second-person singular present passive imperative of cūdō
  3. second-person singular present passive indicative of cūdō

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cudo#Latin

cudo

Latin

Etymology 1


From Proto-Italic *kūdō, from Proto-Indo-European *kewh₂- (to strike, hew, forge).


Pronunciation

Verb

cūdō (present infinitive cūdereperfect active cūdīsupine cūsum); third conjugation

  1. strikebeatpoundknock
  2. stampcoin (money)

Inflection

 Conjugation of cudo (third conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present cūdō cūdis cūdit cūdimus cūditis cūdunt
imperfect cūdēbam cūdēbās cūdēbat cūdēbāmus cūdēbātis cūdēbant
future cūdam cūdēs cūdet cūdēmus cūdētis cūdent
perfect cūdī cūdistī cūdit cūdimus cūdistis cūdēruntcūdēre
pluperfect cūderam cūderās cūderat cūderāmus cūderātis cūderant
future perfect cūderō cūderis cūderit cūderimus cūderitis cūderint
passive present cūdor cūderiscūdere cūditur cūdimur cūdiminī cūduntur
imperfect cūdēbar cūdēbāriscūdēbāre cūdēbātur cūdēbāmur cūdēbāminī cūdēbantur
future cūdar cūdēriscūdēre cūdētur cūdēmur cūdēminī cūdentur
perfect cūsus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect cūsus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect cūsus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present cūdam cūdās cūdat cūdāmus cūdātis cūdant
imperfect cūderem cūderēs cūderet cūderēmus cūderētis cūderent
perfect cūderim cūderīs cūderit cūderīmus cūderītis cūderint
pluperfect cūdissem cūdissēs cūdisset cūdissēmus cūdissētis cūdissent
passive present cūdar cūdāriscūdāre cūdātur cūdāmur cūdāminī cūdantur
imperfect cūderer cūderēriscūderēre cūderētur cūderēmur cūderēminī cūderentur
perfect cūsus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect cūsus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present cūde cūdite
future cūditō cūditō cūditōte cūduntō
passive present cūdere cūdiminī
future cūditor cūditor cūduntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives cūdere cūdisse cūsūrus esse cūdī cūsus esse cūsum īrī
participles cūdēns cūsūrus cūsus cūdendus
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
cūdere cūdendī cūdendō cūdendum cūsum cūsū

Etymology 2

Unknown, presumably a loanwoard. Compare Proto-Germanic *hōdaz (a hood, soft covering for the head) from Proto-Indo-European  *kadʰ- (to cover)Persian خود (xudhelmet).


UWAGA!!!

Wg Mię ofitzjalni jęsykosnaftzy nie znajo i nie rozumiejo Pra-Słowiańskich słów, jak Chów / (c)Ho’W, Chować / (c)HoW+aC’, Schować / Z/S+(c)HoW+aC’, Zachować / Za+(c)HoW+aC’, itp… Widać już co to było to tzw. ruchome (s) / S, hm?


Pronunciation

Noun

cūdō m (genitive cūdōnis); third declension (dis legomenon)

  1. helmet

Inflection

Third declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative cūdō cūdōnēs
genitive cūdōnis cūdōnum
dative cūdōnī cūdōnibus
accusative cūdōnem cūdōnēs
ablative cūdōne cūdōnibus
vocative cūdō cūdōnēs

Synonyms

References


Polish

Etymology


From Proto-Slavic *čudo.


Pronunciation

Noun

cudo n (diminutive cudeńko)

  1. wondermarvel (something considered amazing)

Declension


UWAGA!!!

Dlaczego odtfoszono to jako rzekome Pra-Słowiańskie *čudo, a nie jako *tudo / *To’Do, hm?


…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/%C4%8Dudo

Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/čudo

Proto-Slavic

Alternative forms

Etymology


From Proto-Indo-European *(s)kéwdos. A possible cognate is Ancient Greek κδος (kûdos).


Noun

čùdo n

  1. miraclewonder

Inflection

Descendants

References

…..

https://pl.wiktionary.org/wiki/cud

cud (język polski)

wymowa:
IPA[ʦ̑ut]AS[cut], zjawiska fonetyczne: wygł. wymowa ?/i
znaczenia:

rzeczownik, rodzaj męskorzeczowy

(1.1) rel. niezwykły akt działania siły nadprzyrodzonejzob. też cud (religia) w Wikipedii
(1.2) przen. rzecz niezwykłaniespodziewanamało prawdopodobna
odmiana:
(1.1–2)

przykłady:
(1.1) Apostołowie chodzili i czynili cuda.
(1.2) To prawdziwy cudAuto zostało całkowicie zniszczone w wypadkua on wyszedł z niego bez żadnych ran!
kolokacje:
(1.2) siedem cudów świata
wyrazy pokrewne:
rzecz. cudowność żcudak mcudaczność ż
przym. cudownycudnycudaczny
przysł. cudowniecudniecudacznie
czas. cudować
związki frazeologiczne:
cud-miód • cuda na kiju • dzielnica cudów • ósmy cud świata
tłumaczenia:
źródła:
  1. Skocz do góry publikacja w otwartym dostępie – możesz ją przeczytać Hasło cud w: Wielki słownik ortograficzny, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cud#Polish

cud

Polish

Etymology


First attested from 16th c. From Old Polish czudczudo Proto-Slavic *čudo < Proto-Indo-European *(s)kēu̯d-es, *(s)kēu̯d-os. Cognates include Ancient Greek κδος (kûdos, glory).


Pronunciation

Noun

cud m inan

  1. miracle

Declension

Derived terms

Related terms

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)k%C3%A9wdos&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/(s)kéwdos.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%BA%E1%BF%A6%CE%B4%CE%BF%CF%82#Ancient_Greek

κδος

Ancient Greek

Etymology


From Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewh₁- (to perceive, pay attention). Cognate with κοέω (koéō)Latin cavSanskrit कवि (kavíwise, poet, seer, sage)Lithuanian kavoti (safeguard, tend)Old Armenian ցուցանեմ (cʿucʿanemI show)Polish cześć  (glory) and cud  (miracle)


Pronunciation

Noun

κδος  (kûdosn (genitive κῡ́δεος or κῡ́δους); third declension

  1. renownglory

Declension

Derived terms

Descendants

References

  • κῦδος in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • κῦδος in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • κῦδος in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
  • κῦδος in Bailly, Anatole (1935) Le Grand Bailly: Dictionnaire grec-français, Paris: Hachette
  • κῦδος in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
  • κῦδος in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
  • Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[1], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.

UWAGA!!!

DLACZEGO W SANSKRYCIE I W AWESTYJSKIM NIE DOSZŁO DO TZW. PALATALIZACJI, CZYLI UDŹWIĘCZNIENIA,.. jak to rzekomo powinno było nastąpić, hm?


…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BF#Sanskrit

कवि

Sanskrit

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-Aryan *kawíṣ, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *káwiš (seer, saint, poet), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kowh₁is, from *(s)kewh₁- (to observe, to perceive). Cognate with Avestan (kauui)Ancient Greek κδος (kûdos)Latin cavOld Armenian  ցուցանեմ (cʿucʿanemI show) and English show.

Pronunciation

Noun

कवि  (kavím

  1. wise mansageseerprophet
  2. singerbardpoet
  3. thinkerintelligent man, man of understanding, leader
  4. (figuratively) name of the gates of the sacrificial enclosure (compare कवष् (kaváṣ))

Declension

Masculine i-stem declension of कवि (kaví)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative कविः
kavíḥ
कवी
kavī́
कवयः
kaváyaḥ
Vocative कवे
káve
कवी
kávī
कवयः
kávayaḥ
Accusative कविम्
kavím
कवी
kavī́
कवीन्
kavī́n
Instrumental कविना / कव्या¹
kavínā / kavyā̀¹
कविभ्याम्
kavíbhyām
कविभिः
kavíbhiḥ
Dative कवये / कव्ये²
kaváye / kavyè²
कविभ्याम्
kavíbhyām
कविभ्यः
kavíbhyaḥ
Ablative कवेः / कव्यः²
kavéḥ / kavyàḥ²
कविभ्याम्
kavíbhyām
कविभ्यः
kavíbhyaḥ
Genitive कवेः / कव्यः²
kavéḥ / kavyàḥ²
कव्योः
kavyóḥ
कवीनाम्
kavīnā́m
Locative कवौ
kavaú
कव्योः
kavyóḥ
कविषु
kavíṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic
  • ²Less common

Descendants

Adjective

कवि  (kaví)

  1. gifted with insightintelligentknowingenlightenedwisesensibleprudentskilfulcunning

Declension

Masculine i-stem declension of कवि
Nom. sg. कविः (kaviḥ)
Gen. sg. कवेः (kaveḥ)
Nom. sg. कविः (kaviḥ)
Gen. sg. कव्याः / कवेः (kavyāḥ / kaveḥ)
Nom. sg. कवि (kavi)
Gen. sg. कविनः (kavinaḥ)

References

  • कवि” in Carl Cappeller, A Sanskrit–English Dictionary: Based upon the St. Petersburg Lexicons, Strasbourg: Karl J. Trübner, 1891, OCLC 186102264, page 114.
  • Monier Williams (1899), “कवि”, in A Sanskrit–English Dictionary, [], new edition, Oxford: At the Clarendon PressOCLC 458052227, page 0264.
  • Arthur A. MacdonellA practical Sanskrit dictionary with transliteration, accentuation, and etymological analysis throughout, London: Oxford University Press, 1893, page 065
  • Horace Hayman WilsonA dictionary in Sanscrit and English, 2nd ed., Calcutta: Education Press, Circular Road, 1832, page 204

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-Aryan/kaw%C3%AD%E1%B9%A3&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-Aryan/kawíṣ.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=%CE%BA%CE%BF%CE%AD%CF%89&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have an entry for κοέω.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/caveo#Latin

caveo

Latin

Cave canem

Beware of the dog

Etymology

From Proto-Italic *kawēō, from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewh₁- (to perceive, pay attention). Cognate with Ancient Greek κοέω (koéō), Sanskrit कवि (kavíwise, poet, seer, sage), Lithuanian kavoti (safeguard, tend), Old Armenian ցուցանեմ (cʿucʿanemI show), English show.

Pronunciation

Verb

caveō (present infinitive cavēreperfect active cāvīsupine cautum); second conjugation

  1. bewareavoid, take care.

    Caveat emptor.

    May the buyer beware.
  2. I am aware of; guard against, prevent.
  3. (law) I take care for, orderdecreestipulate.
  4. (with ab) I procure bail or surety from.
  5. I make someone secure by bail or surety; pledge.

Usage notes

The primary sense („beware”) may either govern a noun in the accusative or a second verb in the subjunctive, with  in between caveō and the next verb, with the meaning „beware lest …”. However, some writers, especially in poetry, may drop the  in this construction.

Inflection

more ▼   Conjugation of caveo (second conjugation)

1At least one rare poetic syncopated perfect form is attested.

Derived terms

References

…..

A teraz to samo, tyle że w językach giermańskich…

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/show#English

show

English

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Middle English schewenschawenscheawen, from Old English scēawian (to look, look at, observe, gaze, behold, see, look on with favor, look favorably on, regard, have respect for, look at with care, consider, inspect, examine, scrutinize, reconnoiter, look out, look for, seek for, select, choose, provide, show (favor, respect, etc.), exhibit, display, grant, decree), from Proto-Germanic  *skawwōną (to look, see), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewh₁- (to heed, look, feel, take note of); see haw, gaumcaveatcaution. Cognate with Scots shaw (to show)Saterland Frisian scoe (to look, behold)Dutch schouwen (to inspect, view)German schauen  (to see, behold)Danish skue (to behold)Icelandic skygna (to spy, behold, see). Related to sheen.

Pronunciation

Verb

show (third-person singular simple present showspresent participle showingsimple past showed or shewpast participle shown or (rare) showed)

  1. (transitive) To display, to have somebody see (something).
    The car’s dull finish showed years of neglect.
    All he had to show for four years of attendance at college was a framed piece of paper.
  2. (transitive) To bestow; to confer.
    to show mercy; to show favour; (dialectal) show me the salt please
  3. (transitive) To indicate (a fact) to be true; to demonstrate.
  4. (transitive) To guide or escort.
    Could you please show him on his way. He has overstayed his welcome.
  5. (intransitive) To be visible, to be seen.
    Your bald patch is starting to show.
  6. (intransitive, informal) To put in an appearance; show up.
    We waited for an hour, but they never showed.
  7. (intransitive, informal) To have an enlarged belly and thus be recognizable as pregnant.
  8. (intransitive, racing) To finish third, especially of horses or dogs.
    In the third race: Aces Up won, paying eight dollars; Blarney Stone placed, paying three dollars; and Cinnamon showed, paying five dollars.
  9. (obsolete) To have a certain appearance, such as well or ill, fit or unfit; to become or suit; to appear.

Usage notes

  • The past participle shown was uncommon before the 19th century, but is now the preferred form in standard English. In the UK, showed is regarded as archaic or dialectal. In the US, it is considered a standard variant form, but shown is more common. Garner’s Modern American Usage favors shown over showed as past participle and claims it is mandatory for passives.
  • In the past, shew was used as a past-tense form and shewed as a past participle of this verb; both forms are now archaic.

Synonyms

Antonyms

Derived terms

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/sheen#English

sheen

English

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Middle English sheneschene, from Old English īene (beautiful, fair, bright, brilliant, light), from Proto-Germanic *skauniz  (beautiful), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewh₁-. Cognate with Scots  schenescheine (beautiful, fair, attractive)Saterland Frisian  skeen (clean, pure)West Frisian skjin (nice, clean)Dutch schoon (clean, beautiful, fair)German schön (beautiful), Danish  skøn (beautiful)Swedish skön (beautiful, fine). Compare also the loanword Finnish kaunis (beautiful). See also English show.

Adjective

sheen (comparative sheenersuperlative sheenest)

  1. (rare, poetic) Beautifulgood-lookingattractiveradiantshiny.

Noun

sheen (countable and uncountableplural sheens)

  1. Splendorradianceshininess.
  2. A thin layer of a substance (such as oil) spread on a solid or liquid surface.
    oil sheen

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)kewh%E2%82%81-

Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)kewh₁-

Proto-Indo-European

Root

*(s)kewh₁-[1][2]

  1. to perceive
  2. to observe

Derived terms

References

  1. De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  2. Philippa, Marlies; Debrabandere, Frans; Quak, Arend; Schoonheim, Tanneke; van der Sijs, Nicoline (2003–2009) Etymologisch woordenboek van het Nederlands (in Dutch), Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press

…..

A teraz powracam do zniekształconych inaczej, giermańskich postaci słów związanych pojęciowo z Kuć / Ko’C’

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hew

hew

English

Etymology 1

From Middle English hewen, from Old English hēawan, from Proto-Germanic *hawwaną, from Proto-Indo-European *kewh₂- (to strike, hew, forge).

Pronunciation

Verb

hew (third-person singular simple present hewspresent participle hewingsimple past hewed or (rare) hewpast participle hewed or hewn)

  1. (transitiveintransitive) To chop away at; to whittle down; to mow down.
  2. (transitive) To shape; to form.
    One of the most widely used typefaces in the world was hewn by the English printer and typographer John Baskerville.
    to hew out a sepulchre
  3. (transitive, US) To act according to, to conform to; usually construed with to.

Derived terms

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/houwan#Old_High_German

houwan

Old High German

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *hawwaną, whence also Old English hēawan (English hew), Old Norse hǫggva.

Verb

houwan (preterite singular hio or hiupreterite plural hiewun or hiuwenpast participle gihouwan)[1]

  1. to hew

Conjugation

Descendants

References

  1. Braune, Wilhelm (1955), Althochdeutsche Grammatik, 8. Auflage, bearbeitet von Walther Mitzka, Halle (Saale): Niemeyer, p. 317, § 354, Anm. 2.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hawwan%C4%85

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hawwaną

Proto-Germanic

Etymology


From Proto-Indo-European *kewh₂- (to beat, hew, forge).


Pronunciation

  • IPA(key)/ˈxɑw.wɑ.nɑ̃/

Verb

*hawwaną

  1. to chop, to hew
  2. to forge

Inflection

Descendants

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kewh%E2%82%82-

Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kewh₂-

Proto-Indo-European

Root

*kewh₂-[1][2]

  1. to hit, to strike
  2. to forge

Derived terms

  • *kowh₂-e-ti (o-grade iterative)
  • *kuh₂-d-e-ti (extended?)

References

  1. De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  2. Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill

UWAGA!!!

Ofitzjalnym jęsykosnaftzom pomyliły siem znóf dźwięki i słowa, patrz: Żyć / Z”/R”yC’, Żuć / Z”/R”o’C’ i Kuć / Ko’C’


…..

A teraz słowa, które wg Mię mają związek z Kuciem i Kuźnią. Zwracam uwagę, że offitzjalnej wykładni etymologiczeskiej brak…

…..

Kaźń / KaZ’N’

https://pl.wikisource.org/wiki/S%C5%82ownik_etymologiczny_j%C4%99zyka_polskiego/ka%C5%BA%C5%84

Słownik etymologiczny języka polskiego/kaźń

kaźń, kaźnićkaznodzieja, z licznemi urobieniami, ‘ten, co dzieje, prawi kaźni, przykazania boże’, bo pierwotne kaznodziejstwo ograniczało się modlitwami głównemi i dziesięciorgiem: »pirzwa kaźń itd.«, ‘pierwszy nakaz’; kazno- w złożeniu, jak kono- od końświno-od świnia. Urobione przyrostkiem  (por. da-ń) od kaz-ać; znaczy pierwotnie ‘rozkaz’, ‘karność’, ‘kara, plaga, dopust’, nakoniec i ‘więzienie’; tak samo czasownik kaźnić, ‘karać’. Prasłowo; w cerk. ‘nakaz’ i ‘kara’, rus. czes. kaz(e)ń, ‘kara’.

…..

https://pl.wiktionary.org/wiki/ka%C5%BA%C5%84

kaźń (język polski)

wymowa:
IPA[kaɕɲ̊]AS[kaśń̦], zjawiska fonetyczne: wygł. wymowa ?/i
znaczenia:

rzeczownik, rodzaj żeński

(1.1) wykonanie kary śmierci
(1.2) cierpienia fizycznemęka (zwykle: zadawane uwięzionym)
odmiana:
przykłady:
(1.2) Obozy hitlerowskie były miejscem kaźni wielu Żydów.
tłumaczenia:
źródła:
  1. Skocz do góry Wołacz w: koalar, Formy potencjalne.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ka%C5%BA%C5%84

kaźń

Polish

Pronunciation

Noun

kaźń f

  1. execution
  2. torturetorment

Declension

Further reading

  • kaźń in Polish dictionaries at PWN

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/kazn%D1%8C&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Slavic/kaznь.

…..

Kazić / KaZ’+iC’

https://sjp.pwn.pl/sjp/kazic;2470391.html

kazić

1. daw. «działać na kogoś albo na coś niszcząco, szkodliwie»
2. daw. «demoralizować»

…..

https://pl.wikisource.org/wiki/S%C5%82ownik_etymologiczny_j%C4%99zyka_polskiego/kazi%C4%87

Słownik etymologiczny języka polskiego/kazić

kazić, skazićskazitelny i nieskazitelny; »zakaźne choroby«, »krew zakażona«; przekaza (‘przeszkoda’), przekażaćkaziródkazirodztwokazirodczy; rzadkie są kaziciel i kaźca, ‘co kazi, szpoci, wiarę czy ludzi’. Urobione od kaz-, ‘zepsucie, zniszczenie’, a to jest odmianką od czez-  w czeznąć (‘ginąć’, p.), por. co do samogłoski z-gaga i żec.

…..

https://pl.wiktionary.org/wiki/kazi%C4%87

kazić (język polski)

wymowa:
[uwaga 1] IPA[ˈkaʑiʨ̑]AS[kaźić], zjawiska fonetyczne: zmięk.
znaczenia:

czasownik

(1.1) st.pol. psućburzyćniszczyć
uwagi:
  1. Skocz do góry jeśli nie zaznaczono inaczej, jest to wersja odpowiadająca współczesnym standardom języka ogólnopolskiego

UWAGA!!!

Także Kazimierz / KaZi+MieR”, patrz:

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazimierz_(imi%C4%99)

Kazimierz (imię)

Kazimierz – współcześnie przyjęta forma staropolskiego imienia męskiego Kazimir (z odmiankami KazimirzKazimiarKazimierKaźmirKaźmisz), składającego się z członów: Kazi- („niszcz, psuj, niwecz” od kazić „niszczyć, psuć”, porównaj współczesne od-kazić „od-psuć”) i -mir („pokój, spokój”). Oznacza „ten, który (niech) niszczy pokój” – niszcz pokój! = kaź mir! (staropolskie kazi mir!). Kazimierz to imię dynastyczne Piastów; pierwszym Kazimierzem wśród Piastów był Kazimierz Odnowiciel, syn Mieszka II i Rychezy; ostatnim – Kazimierz II, książę cieszyński, zm. w 1528 roku. Imię to było także nadawane w dynastii Jagiellonów[1]. (…)


Więcej podobnych ciekawostek Ukaże / o’+KaZ”/R”e się w następnej części…

Reklamy

25 uwag do wpisu “145 Shield / SHieLD, jako Target / TaRG+eT – Giermański Drag / DRaG i jego pierwotne Pra-Słowiańskie źródłosłowy i znaczenia, czyli tragiczne targnięcie się na najświętsze świętości ofitzjalnego jęsykosnaftzfa 15

  1. Teraz tak se myślę, że wywiedzenie znaczenia źródłosłowu słowa Hew / C”o’, jest błędne, bo to przecież Żuj / Z”o’J, jak w mordę, a nie Kuj / Ko’J, jak to ofitzjalni mondrale se odtfoszyli…

    Polubienie

    • https://www.etymonline.com/word/hew

      hew (v.)
      Old English heawan „to chop, hack, gash, strike with a cutting weapon or tool” (class VII strong verb; past tense heow, past participle heawen), earlier geheawan, from Proto-Germanic *hawwanan (source also of Old Norse hoggva, Old Frisian hawa, Old Saxon hauwan, Middle Dutch hauwen, Dutch houwen, Old High German houwan, German hauen „to cut, strike, hew”), from PIE *kau- „to hew, strike,”a root more widely developed in Slavic (source also of Old Church Slavonic kovo, Lithuanian kauti „to strike, beat, fight;” Polish kúc „to forge,” Russian kovat’ „to strike, hammer, forge;” Latin cudere „to strike, beat;” Middle Irish cuad „beat, fight”).

      Weak past participle hewede appeared 14c., but hasn’t yet entirely displaced hewn. Seemingly contradictory sense of „hold fast, stick to” (in phrase hew to), 1891, developed from earlier figurative phrase hew to the line „stick to a course,” literally „cut evenly with an axe or saw.” Related: Hewed; hewing.

      Related Entries
      eisenhower
      hack
      hay
      hewer
      hewn
      hoe
      incus
      rough-hewn

      Polubienie

      • Wiecie, że to jest kolejny problem dla ofitzjalnych mondrali, no bo znów w j. słowiańskim mamy obie postacie zarówno tzw. satem Z”o’C (od Żyć / Z”yC’) i Kuć / Ko’C’..? Jest jeszcze do zabawy Sucz / So’C”, Szyć / S”yC’, Chuć / (c)Ho’C’, Kuc / Ko’C, Kos / KoS, Koc / KoC, czy Kot / KoT, itp… Umieta to allo-allo jakoś ofitzjalnie wytłumaczyć? 🙂

        Polubienie

  2. Jest nowa kolorowanka
    https://drive.google.com/file/d/15Irl8ee_vD096t6fFETJmsFk46NJCbg8/vie

    EHG jest tam nieformalnie zdefiniowane jako CWC przed zmieszaniem się z KAK.
    Formalnie zaś jako WHG z dodatkiem irańskiego neolitu, kaukaskiego przepływu genów do europy wschodniej.

    Zwracam uwagę pozycje Mordwinów bardzo blisko CWC i to bliżej Germany niż Estonia.
    Mordwińcy są arcyciekawi, gdyż w YDNA składają się w -mogę się mylić, cytuje z pamięcia, na pewno są dwuskładnikowi – 66% z europejskiego R1a i 33% ugrofińskiego N1c.

    Przed przybyciem N1c, byli 100% EHG i 100% CWC.

    Zwraca uwagę strój ludowy zachodnich Mordwińców, zwanych Erzja, jest on .. biało-czerwony
    https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mordwini

    Jakie były kierunki migracji?
    Jakie macie pomysły?

    Polubienie

    • Ten odnośnik niestety nie działa, patrz: Sorry, unable to open the file at this time.

      (…) Jakie były kierunki migracji? Jakie macie pomysły? (…)

      Podpuszczasz, czy na serio pytasz?

      Polubienie

      • Po jej otwarciu ściagnijcie sobie kolorowankę na komputer i otworzcie programem graficznym, jej rozdzielczość będzie niesamowita

        Polubienie

      • Rozumiem teraz. A co jak łaziliśmy sobie za zwierzyną raz tam, a raz tu stamtąd? Jeśli pytasz mnie, to stawiam na Nowogród, skoro R ma pochodzić z okolic Bajkału… to raczej logiczny kierunek. Pewno też kolejna fala lub raczej fale poszły sobie z powrotem na wschód…

        Polubienie

        • Opis pasków? Wszystko opisane, co więcej można by tam napisać?

          Zwraca uwagę wspólna grupa Afontowa Góra, Malta-Yamowcy-CWC
          Dalej, jak bardzo polski KAK jest zgrupowany ze Sardynią i płn.Hiszpanią, jak mu daleko do współczesnych Polaków.
          CWC jest bardzo blisko Polaków, myślę, że więcej próbek da pełne zbliżenie ich do siebie.

          Ukraiński mezolit i neolit jest daleko od współczesnych Ukraińców, którzy skądinąd wiemy są podgrupą Polaków.

          Bardzo dziwne, wskazujące, że nie ma tam ciągłosci genetycznej.
          Pytanie, czy ona nie została przerwana podczas najazdu mongolskiego i jej ponowne zaludnienie, czy wcześniej?

          Ukraiński neolit i mezolit jest identyczny ze szwedzką Motala (przypominam 7500 lat temu, hg.I2a1b) i to jest rozwiązanie zagadki słowiańskości I2a1b (na początku nazywanym słowiańskim).
          Zostali wchłonięci przez CWC z R1a.

          Litwini są pomiędzy ukraiński neolit a dzisiejsi Ukraińcy!

          Polubienie

          • Wszystko piknie, ale gdzie masz opis pasków, np. co to jest ten jasnozielony w MA1? A to czerwone coś? Opiszesz to proszę? Co do Ukrainy, no cóż. Niech się może jakiś zwolennik ciągłości genetyki ukraińskiej itp. wypowie, bo mnie ci Mongołowie i ich ze 200 lat panowania tam przekonują. Nie mówiąc nawet o innych Pieczyngo-Tatarach, czy innych Turkach.

            Polubienie

            • To są te same składniki co zawsze, pozmieniane są kolory.
              pomarańczowy- EEF inaczej rolnicy anatolijscy
              MA1 posiadał po trosze skladnik syberyjski i amerykański- być może jest to żółty tutaj, oraz drawidyjski (wszak był R*, czyli równoległy dla R1 i R2- to są Drawidzi) zapewne tutaj jasnozielony.

              Polubienie

        • Gdybym chociaż wiedziała o czym mówicie. Sikora?
          Komentator z eurogenes napisał:
          „PF said…
          In the recent Siberia paper (Sikora et al) one model shows a 12% input into proto-Malta from something on the branch towards CHG, but before a Basal input into CHG proper. I don’t even know if we can call this something CHG-related.
          In the same model EHG = 76% (78% Malta-like + 22% CHG-like) + 24% (WHG).”
          Muszę zajrzeć do Sikory, bo chyba potwierdza moje niedawne twierdzenia o circa 25% pochodzeniu EHG z Kaukazu. Pamiętasz?

          Polubienie

  3. Pingback: 146 Shield / SHieLD, jako Target / TaRG+eT – Giermański Drag / DRaG i jego pierwotne Pra-Słowiańskie źródłosłowy i znaczenia, czyli tragiczne targnięcie się na najświętsze świętości ofitzjalnego jęsykosnaftzfa 16 | SKRBH

    • Tu ciekawy komentarz…

      EastPole said…
      There is also linguistic supplement “The Formation of the Siberian Linguistic Landscape”by Michaël Peyrot and Guus Kroonen.

      They didn’t go deeper into speculation about Yana people language and religion, only metioned Kortlandt’s and Greenberg linguistic theories:

      “On a still deeper level, Kortlandt sees Uralo-Siberian related to Indo-European and to Altaic, according to him consisting of Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic, Korean and Japonic (2010a, 2010b). A similar so-called macrofamily, “Eurasiatic”, has been posited by Greenberg (2000).”

      Linguistic influences and relationships are as interesting as religious and cultural. What was the origin of IE religion and culture and what was it’s relation to Siberian religions and cultures?

      There is a well known fact that at the root of Greek and Vedic religion and philosophy lies a shamanistic religion and culture whose origin is variously explained by different people.

      Very common explanation is that it came from Siberia. It is probably true but the question is when and how.

      Siberian East Asian genetic influences in Slavic populations, Sintashta “Indo-Iranians” and ancient Greeks are not visible, yet they share many similarities in language, religion and culture and some elements of them can be called shamanistic. So how do we explain it?

      I have a theory.

      We know that shamanism is a prehistoric tradition dating back to Paleolithic. There are many similarities between Siberian shamanism and North American. Shamans eat special magic mushrooms, have special experiences of soul traveling to heaven and explain the world in a similar way etc.
      It is reasonable to assume that Yana people could practice shamanism. Then we have population practicing shamanistic tradition which is not admixed with East Asians.

      We can then suspect that R1a EHG deriving from Siberia and distantly related to Yana and Malta people were also practicing shamanism.
      When R1a EHG admixed with CHG and became pastoralist some elements of shamanic religion was probably also present among them.

      And now the interesting thing:

      https://postimg.cc/N2x329Fn

      Siberian shamans as a result of interaction with Slavs switched from eating magic mushrooms to drinking vodka. Why did they do it? Probably because it is safer, healthier, more predictable and when connected with proper rituals, singing and dancing produces desirable effects of contact with loving and caring spirits or gods.

      I suspect that the same could happen with our ancestors. In Sredny Stog they interacted with EEF of Tripolye and switched from eating magic mushrooms to drinking alcohol, mead or beer. So some elements of shamanistic believes were preserved but new rituals were invented to reach the goal of contact with loving and caring spirits or gods.

      CWC was probably a culture in which rituals involving drinking of alcohol, singing, dancing, experiencing the love God who dwells in heaven and in our hearts were very important. It resulted also in the development of language and poetry.

      I wrote about poetry here:

      http://eurogenes.blogspot.com/2018/05/hittite-era-anatolians-in-qpadm.html?showComment=1526494048205#c892906440646153904

      This would explain the links with shamanism and at the same time the existence of many common elements in poetry, religion and language among Vedic Aryans, Greeks and Slavs.
      October 23, 2018 at 3:36 AM

      Polubienie

    • A tu jest drugi artykuł i kolejne komentarze…

      http://eurogenes.blogspot.com/2018/10/steppe-maykop-buffer-zone.html

      Wednesday, October 24, 2018

      Steppe Maykop: a buffer zone?

      EastPole said…
      It is OT but it interests me very much because ritualistic use of drugs can tell us something about the culture and religion and maybe language of the people.

      There is an article in Science:“Cannabis, opium use part of ancient Near Eastern cultures”by Andrew Lawler

      “Digs in the Caucasus have uncovered braziers containing seeds and charred remains of cannabis dating to about
      3000 B.C.E.”

      http://science.sciencemag.org/content/360/6386/249

      So the use of cannabis in Yamnaya culture was probably related to Caucasus.

      They also write about opium use in ancient Near Eastern cultures:

      “For example, “hard scientific evidence” shows that ancient people extracted opium from poppies, says David Collard, senior archaeologist at Jacobs, an engineering firm in Melbourne, Australia, who found signs of ritual opium
      use on Cyprus dating back more than 3000 years.
      […}
      Residue analyses show that between 1600 and 1000 B.C.E., people poured opium alkaloids into pots crafted in the shape of the seed capsule of the opium poppy, in what Collard calls “prehistoric commodity branding.” All the jugs were found in temples and tombs, suggesting a role in ritual. Opium jugs made on Cyprus have been found in Egypt and the Levant— the first clear example of the international drug trade”

      It confirms archeologists’ claims that Minoans were worshiping “Poppy Goddess” and used opium:

      http://albertis-window.com/2013/10/minoans-the-poppy-goddess-and-opium/

      So in the Neolithic/Bronze Age we have different zones using different drugs for ritualistic purposes.
      1. In the north we have EHG shamanic cultures using magic mushrooms.
      2. In the forest and forest steppe of CE Europe EHG +CHG +EEF R1a Hyperboreans or Indo-Slavic CWC populations used alcohol, mead or beer (and hops-haoma/soma).
      3. Caucasus and dry steppe EHG+CHG R1b Yamnaya people used cannabis.
      4. Near East EEF used opium.

      Plus the use of wine in the south. Early Bell Beakers probably used wine as Iberia, France, Italy, South Germany, Hungary were wine countries.

      So we have different populations using different drugs for ritualistic purposes. It would be interesting to investigate how it all correlates with religions, languages, cultures and genes and how it can be tracked in migrations and influences.
      October 26, 2018 at 1:01 AM

      EastPole said…
      @André de Vasconcelos
      “The Corded Ware people had many offspring who spread rapidly across Europe. They were among the ancestors of the Bell Beaker culture of central Europe, known by the vessels they used to drink wine, according to a study by Kristiansen and Reich published this month.”

      http://science.sciencemag.org/content/356/6339/678.summary

      So Corded Ware influenced Bell Beakers but Beakers used to drink wine. Which is natural because everywhere in the south where wine was available mead or beer were replaced by wine. Indo-Aryan Kalash in Central Asia were drinking wine:

      http://eurogenes.blogspot.com/2018/01/the-kho-people-archaic-indo-aryans.html?showComment=1516795236915#c8505964353792957184

      Thracian/Phrygian Sabazios was originally a beer god, but later was identified with Dionysus the god of wine.
      October 26, 2018 at 3:44 AM

      André de Vasconcelos said…
      @EastPole
      That isn’t a study on Iberian Beaker drinking habits, Reich has nothing to do with early Iberian beaker content

      http://bellbeakerblogger.blogspot.com/2015/03/cerveza-for-your-cimepozuelos.html

      https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236893116_Beer_and_Bell_Beakers_Drinking_Rituals_in_Copper_Age_Inner_Iberia

      „Beer and Bell Beakers: Drinking Rituals in Copper Age Inner Iberia

      Manuel Ángel Rojo-Guerra (a1), Rafael Garrido-Pena (a2), Íñigo García-Martínez-de-Lagrán (a3), Jordi Juan-Treserras (a4) …
      https://doi.org/10.1017/S0079497X00000840
      Published online: 01 February 2014

      Abstract
      This article provides a summary of the archaeological context of Bell Beaker pottery from two Ambrona Valley (Soria, Spain) tombs whose chemical analysis identifies the existence of a primitive wheat beer. This is compared with other new analyses in Iberia, from both Neolithic and Copper Age sites, which also demonstrate the use of alcoholic beverages. The two Ambrona examples are Copper Age Bell Beaker intrusions into earlier Middle Neolithic Monumental graves. The archaeological features of both discoveries are described, and an interpretation is offered concerning the social and symbolic context in which these Bell Beaker inhumations were deposited, and the role that alcoholic beverages such as beer might have played in this social context.”

      https://www.academia.edu/1491069/The_Bell_Beaker_Phenomenon_and_the_interaction_spheres_of_the_Early_Bronze_Age_East_Mediterranean_similarities_and_differences

      „New residue analyses from six Bell Beaker sites in Spain support now strongly their function as vessels for drinking beer.”

      „He proposed that the Bell Beakers demonstrate the spread of alcoholic beverages,possibly beer or mead, to western Europe which existed in East Europe since the Baden Culture (nowdated to the middle and later fourth millenniumBC) and than the Globular Amphorae and Cordedware culture and whose ultimate origin must be searched in the Near East.”

      Maybe some drank wine, but the trend seems to be beer and mead. Even in the iron age wine seems to be mostly associated with more sophisticated cultures who were in contact with Pheonician traders and colonies, at least in west Iberia. You cannot equate Iberian Beakers with wine and completely discard the fact that beer was actually proven to be consumed locally, even before „proper Beaker folk” got to Iberia around 2500BC. Copper/Bronze Age Iberia wasn’t a „wine country” by any means
      October 26, 2018 at 5:10 AM

      Blogger EastPole said…
      @André de Vasconcelos
      “This period of Vitis dominance has been dated to approximately 4480 B.P., and demonstrates that cultivation of the vine was occurring in Spain at least 1000 years before what most authors regard as the date of introduction, and corresponds to early Bronze age cultivation of the vine.”

      https://www.jstor.org/stable/2844863?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

      So wine was cultivated in Spain in Bronze age.

      Maybe the use of beer by Bell Beakers in Spain had some religious significance? For example Greece was a wine country, but during Eleusinian Mysteries the initiates were forbidden to drink wine, were undergoing series of purifications and at the end participated in a ritual during which they were told some secrets, were given kykeon to drink and were singing and dancing around fire. Kykeon was an alcoholic drink made mainly of water, barley and naturally occurring substances. But there was some religious poetry and music added to it which made people very happy. The high point of the celebration was „an ear of grain cut in silence”, which represented the force of the new life.

      We know that mystery cults like that influenced Greek philosophy very much, from Pythagoras to Plato and Plotinus. We also see similar influences in Vedic religion and philosophy. These mystery cults arrived to Greece from the north, from Eastern Europe. Vedic India was also influenced by some migrations from Eastern Europe. There are also elements in Slavic rituals and believes which explain some of common elements in Vedic and Greek traditions.

      Maybe Bell Beakers were also influenced by the same religion, from CWC for example. I think of Bell Beakers as coming from Yamnaya. But Yamnaya were cannabis smoking and wine drinking steppe herders from the North of Caucasus and their religion was for sure very different from beer and mead drinking Indo-Slavonic Hyperboreans who had some links with magic mushroom eating shamanic cultures of EHG.
      October 26, 2018 at 9:21 AM

      PF said…
      @Eastpole
      It’s a very interesting topic; I’ve thought about it before. Other agricultural products are used to trace migrations but I believe using drugs has been understudied and could provide some extra insight.

      Wild cannabis from which most domesticates evolved seems to have come from around the Altai. Cannabis use (for hemp and/or drugs) was almost definitely a steppe thing.

      ”…early inhabitants of the Eurasian steppes, such as people belonging to the Sredni Stog culture, which flourished from about 4300 to 3500 BCE, used Cannabis to make a “socially approved intoxicant,” celebrating its significance “by imprinting it on their pottery.” Sherratt argued that the ingestion of Cannabis was a fundamental aspect of Eastern European mysticism. We believe that Cannabis, along with cord-marked pottery and domesticated horses, were dispersed together as parts of a general cultural complex that developed in the Eurasian steppes during the Copper Age and Early Bronze Age (ca. 6000 to 5000 BP).”

      “In the late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age (ca. 3500 to 2300 BCE), people associated with what archeologists refer to as the “Yamnaya Horizon,” essentially a pastoralist kurgan culture, developed out of eastern origins in the steppes of the Don and Volga River regions. The herding people or societies of this culture were most likely speakers of “classic Proto-Indo-European” and were the first in the Eurasian steppes to generate a pastoral economy requiring regular seasonal migrations to fresh grazing land. They used wagons pulled by cattle to carry their tents and supplies far into the steppes of Central Asia when necessary to graze their animals. They also used horses to survey huge amounts of territory and to drive their large herds of domesticated animals. Beginning about 3100 BCE, people associated with the Yamnaya herding culture spread swiftly across the steppes carrying Cannabis and its use with them, eventually broadening their range to include areas to the west in the Danube Valley and then into other areas of Eastern Europe including Serbia and Hungary, where they encountered settled farmers.”

      “…in Eastern Europe there are two sites that have yielded hemp seeds more than 4,000 years old. One is a grave at Gurbanesti, east of Bucharest in the Danube Valley region of Romania where a clay vessel (brazier or “pipe-cup”) with carbonized hemp seeds was discovered, perhaps the earliest evidence for the burning of Cannabis. The second site where Early Bronze Age seeds of Cannabis have been found is located in the northern Caucasus region where a similar “smoking vessel” with charred hemp seeds was discovered in a burial…these charred seeds are the earliest evidence for intentional burning of Cannabis and suggest ritualistic, perhaps psychoactive use. Sherratt proposed that smoking or inhaling Cannabis fumes was introduced into the Danube Valley by immigrants of the Yamnaya culture dating back approximately 5,000 years. Indeed the relationship between Cannabis and the Yamnaya culture is important in understanding major aspects of the origin and spread of Cannabis into and throughout much of Europe.”

      “we suggest that hemp was not growing in northwestern India, or anywhere else in South Asia, until the influx of migrating Indo-European speaking tribes from the north approximately 3,500 years ago.”

      “The notion that Cannabis had a connection with early horse exploitation and eventual domestication of horses is admittedly speculative. However, this idea is supported by the fact that hemp has a propensity to grow around Central Asian nomad camps, even today, especially where there is nutrient-rich soil…”

      All quotes from „Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany” by Mark Merlin and Robert Clarke. LOTS more discussion in the book.

      So yeah, tons of evidence that cannabis was spread by the early steppe cultures. I think a hearty thank you is in order. 😉
      October 26, 2018 at 5:41 PM

      EastPole said…
      @Ric Hern
      “I doubt that Herders had the time to invest in a Vineyard…or anything that takes more than half a year to cultivate and harvest…”

      We know from Herodotus that Scythians were smoking cannabis and drinking a lot of wine. There was the stereotype of drunkenness among the Scythians. Yamnaya steppe herders were getting wine from the farmers in the south. Caucasus was a wine producing area very early in history.
      Those far away from wine producing areas were probably drinking kumis, a fermented dairy product traditionally made from mare’s milk.
      Herodotus describes the Scythians processing of mare’s milk which is widely believed to be the first description of ancient kumis-making.
      The possibility is high that kumis was produced in Botai culture.
      October 27, 2018 at 1:19 AM

      Polubienie

  4. Pingback: 155 Moje podsumowanie ostatnich 5 lat „ario-słowiańskiego” wariactwa, czyli Ukraina,.. a raczej UPAdlina praojczyzną ludzkości | SKRBH

Skomentuj

Wprowadź swoje dane lub kliknij jedną z tych ikon, aby się zalogować:

Logo WordPress.com

Komentujesz korzystając z konta WordPress.com. Wyloguj /  Zmień )

Zdjęcie na Google

Komentujesz korzystając z konta Google. Wyloguj /  Zmień )

Zdjęcie z Twittera

Komentujesz korzystając z konta Twitter. Wyloguj /  Zmień )

Zdjęcie na Facebooku

Komentujesz korzystając z konta Facebook. Wyloguj /  Zmień )

Połączenie z %s

Ta witryna wykorzystuje usługę Akismet aby zredukować ilość spamu. Dowiedz się w jaki sposób dane w twoich komentarzach są przetwarzane.