220 Friday, Frigg, Frigga, Freja, *Frijjō, Sprzyjać, Przyjaciel, Przyjaźń, Przy i inne dowody na wtórność ubezdźwięcznień i zapożyczenia Od-Pra-Słowiańskie w językach bałtyjskich i germańskich 01

Carl Emil Doepler, Frigg and her servants (1880)

Carl Emil Doepler (1824-1905) – Wägner, Wilhelm. 1882. Nordisch-germanische Götter und Helden. Otto Spamer, Leipzig & Berlin. Page 109.

…..

Poprzednim razem obiecałem, że we wpisie następnym omówię pochodzenie znaczenia słowa Friday, czyli fielko-germańskiego Piątku, itp.

To dlatego od razu na samym początku, wszystkim allo-allo naziolom i słowianofobom wszelkiej maści, zadaję takie oto wielokrotnie złożone pytanie:

Czy odtfoszona Pra-Germańska / Proto-Germanic *Frijjō, staronordycka Old Norse Frigg, itp, to germańska Freja… i która z nich, czy obie, były żoną Oda,.. czy Odyna i dlaczego Pra-Słowiańska Przyjaźń / PR”y+JaZ’N’, jak zwykle była od nich starsza, czyli Pierwsza / PieRW+S”a ? 😈 😈😈

Pośrednio sam na to pytanie odpowiem, ale wcześniej omówię późne zapożyczenia Od-Pra-Słowiańskie widoczne w językach bałtyjskich i ugro-fińskich.  Następnie zajmę się zapożyczeniami Od-Pra Słowiańskimi odnajdywanymi w w językach germańskich i w tzw. grece. Z powodu dużej ilości danych muszę niestety stworzyć oddzielny wpis techniczny, poświęcony tylko ich Pra-Słowiańskim źródłosłowom.

Przypomnę co napisałem o rzekomej tzw. wspólnocie bałto-słowiańskiej i rzekomym języku Proto-Balto-Slavic, odtfoszonym przez ofitzjalnych jęsykosnaftzóf, patrz:

UWAGA!

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *penktas.

NIC TAKIEGO JAK „PROTO-BALTO-SLAVIC” NIGDY NIE ISTNIAŁO! NIE BYŁO ŻADNEJ TZW. WSPÓLNOTY BAŁTO-SŁOWIAŃSKIEJ! WSZYSTKIE ODTFOSZENIE NAWIĄZUJĄCE DO TEGO SA BŁĘDNE! OZNACZA TO, ŻE JEST JAK TWIERDZĘ OD DAWNA, ŻE OFITZJALNE JĘSYKOSNAFTZFO TO PRZECIW-SŁOWIAŃSKA PROPAGANDA, A NIE WIARYGODNA NAUKA!!!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Balto-Slavic_language

Proto-Balto-Slavic is a reconstructed proto-language descending from Proto-Indo-European (PIE). From Proto-Balto-Slavic, the later  Balto-Slavic languages are thought to have developed, composed of sub-branches Baltic and Slavic, and including modern LatvianLithuanian, Polish, UkrainianRussian and Serbo-Croatian among others.

Like most other proto-languages, it is not attested by any surviving texts but has been reconstructed using the comparative method. There are several isoglosses that Baltic and Slavic languages share in phonologymorphology and accentology, which represent common innovations from Proto-Indo-European times and can be chronologically arranged. (…)

Języki bałtyjskie to późna mieszanka. Powstała dopiero po około tzw. 1500 pne, w tzw. epoce żelaza, na bazie Pra-Słowiańskiego podkładu językowego / substratum lub substrate Kultury Ceramiki Sznurowej / Toporów Bojowych / CWC. Powstanie języków bałtyjskich wiąże z przyjściem nad Bałtyk ludności ugro-fińskiej o haplogrupie N1C.

Pisałem już o tym nie raz, a potwierdzenie tego przedstawię ponownie we wpisie nr 222. Można już sobie o tym poczytać tu:

https://eurogenes.blogspot.com/2019/12/big-deal-of-2019-ancient-dna.html

Big deal of 2019: ancient DNA confirms the link between Y-haplogroup N and Uralic expansions

Inne tytuły tego wpisu:

220 Peys, Piasta, Pieścić, Pizda, Pięść, Pięć, Piędź, Pięta, Pętać i inne dowody na pierwotną oboczność Pra-Słowiańskich rdzeni 16

220 Wtórnie ubezdźwięcznione liczebniki indogermańskie i ich wysokoenergetyczne PieRwotne PRa-Słowiańskie rdzenie, PieR+WS”y, PRW, PR 28

…..

Oto postacie „bałtyjskie” i ugro-fińskie, czyli zwyczajne późne zapożyczenia Od-Pra-Słowiańskie, patrz:

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/penktadienis

penktadienis

Lithuanian

Lithuanian Wikipedia has an article on: penktadienis

Etymology

From penktas (fifth) + diena (day).

Noun

penktadienis m

  1. Friday (day of the week)
See also

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pietenis%C3%A4

pietenisä

Karelian

Etymology

Borrowed from Russian пя́тница (ptnica).


Noun

pietenisä

  1. Friday

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/p%C3%A9ntek

péntek

Hungarian

Hungarian days of the week
 csütörtök ← péntek → szombat
    Adjective : pénteki
Adverb : péntekenként
Hungarian Wikipedia article on péntek
Etymology

From a Slavic language, compare Proto-Slavic *pętъkъ (whence e.g. Bulgarian пе́тък (pétǎk), Serbo-Croatian pétak, Slovene petek  (Friday).


Pronunciation
  • IPA(key)[ˈpeːntɛk]
  • Hyphenation: pén‧tek
Noun

péntek (plural péntekek)

  1. Friday
Declension
Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative péntek péntekek
accusative pénteket péntekeket
dative pénteknek péntekeknek
instrumental péntekkel péntekekkel
causal-final péntekért péntekekért
translative péntekké péntekekké
terminative péntekig péntekekig
essive-formal péntekként péntekekként
essive-modal
inessive péntekben péntekekben
superessive pénteken péntekeken
adessive pénteknél péntekeknél
illative péntekbe péntekekbe
sublative péntekre péntekekre
allative péntekhez péntekekhez
elative péntekből péntekekből
delative péntekről péntekekről
ablative péntektől péntekektől
non-attributive
possessive – singular
pénteké péntekeké
non-attributive
possessive – plural
péntekéi péntekekéi
Possessive forms of péntek
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. péntekem péntekeim
2nd person sing. pénteked péntekeid
3rd person sing. pénteke péntekei
1st person plural péntekünk péntekeink
2nd person plural pénteketek péntekeitek
3rd person plural péntekük péntekeik
Derived terms

(Compound words):

See also

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/perjantai

perjantai

Finnish

Etymology

Borrowed from Old Swedish frēadagher, from Proto-Germanic *Frijjōz dagaz.

Pronunciation
  • IPA(key)/ˈperjɑntɑi̯/[ˈpe̞rjɑn̪t̪ɑi̯]
  • Rhymes: -erjɑntɑi
  • Hyphenation: per‧jan‧tai
Noun
day of the week
pe Previous: torstai
Next: lauantai

perjantai

  1. Friday
Declension
Inflection of perjantai (Kotus type 18/maa, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative perjantai perjantait
accusative nom. perjantai perjantait
gen. perjantain
genitive perjantain perjantaiden
perjantaitten
partitive perjantaita perjantaita
inessive perjantaissa perjantaissa
elative perjantaista perjantaista
illative perjantaihin perjantaihin
adessive perjantailla perjantailla
ablative perjantailta perjantailta
allative perjantaille perjantaille
essive perjantaina perjantaina
translative perjantaiksi perjantaiksi
instructive perjantain
abessive perjantaitta perjantaitta
comitative perjantaineen
Derived terms
Compounds
See also

…..

Postacie fińskie to rzekome zapożyczenia od-pra-germańskie, z tym że jest to wątpliwe, patrz brak dowodów na przejście F>P.

Dodatkowo same ofitzjalnie odtfoszone postacie pra-germańskie są i wtórnie ubezdźwięcznione i nie pochodzą od liczebnika Pięć / Pie”/eN+C’, czy Piąty / Pia”/oN+Ty, ale od nazwy bogini Frigg, Frigga, itp.

Żeby było śmieszniej, znaczenie jej również wtórnie ubezdźwięcznionej nazwy pochodzi od Pra-Słowiańskiego rdzenia PR w znaczeniu Przy / PR”y i słów, jak Sprzyja / Z/S+PR”y+Ja, czy Przyjaciel / PR”+Ja+Ci+eL. itp.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/Frijj%C5%8Dz_dagaz

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/Frijjōz dagaz

Proto-Germanic

Etymology

From *Frijjōz + *dagaz „Day of Frigg”, a calque of Latin dīes Veneris (Friday; lit. day of Venus).

Pronunciation
  • IPA(key)/ˈɸrij.jɔːz ˈdɑ.ɣɑz/
Noun

*Frijjōz dagaz m

  1. Friday

Inflection

Declension of *Frijjōz dagaz (masculine a-stem)
singular plural
nominative *Frijjōz dagaz *Frijjōz dagōz, *Frijjōz dagōs
vocative *Frijjōz dag *Frijjōz dagōz, *Frijjōz dagōs
accusative *Frijjōz dagą *Frijjōz daganz
genitive *Frijjōz dagas, *Frijjōz dagis *Frijjōz dagǫ̂
dative *Frijjōz dagai *Frijjōz dagamaz
instrumental *Frijjōz dagō *Frijjōz dagamiz
See also
Descendants

1The origin of frjádagr is unclear, but a loan from West Germanic is considered most likely, in which case Old Saxon could be the West Germanic language that gave the Old Norse form, as Old Saxon was in contact with Old Norse in the south of Denmark. A contraction of reconstructed direct descendant *friggjardagr or *freyjudagr (the latter of which would be derived from Norse god Freyja instead of Frigg), suggested by some, is phonetically implausible. The Faroese form fríggjadagur is the result of skerping, the hardening of close vowels into palatal plosives/affricates before another vowel, which is a regular development in Faroese. The vowel -í- ([ʊi]) in fríggjadagur as opposed to -i- ([ɪ]) likewise shows that it cannot derive from *friggjardagur.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/Frijj%C5%8D

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/Frijjō

Proto-Germanic

Etymology

Possibly related to *frijōną.

Pronunciation
Proper noun

*Frijjō f

  1. Frigg or Frigga, the Germanic goddess of love and home, wife of Odin. Identified in later times with the Roman goddess Venus.

Inflection

Declension of *Frijjō (ō-stem)
singular
nominative *Frijjō
vocative *Frijjō
accusative *Frijjǭ
genitive *Frijjōz
dative *Frijjōi
instrumental *Frijjō
Derived terms
Descendants

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Frigg

Frigg

English

Carl Emil Doepler, Frigg and her servants (1880)

Alternative forms
Etymology

From Old Norse Frigg, from Proto-Germanic *Frijjō.

Pronunciation
Proper noun

Frigg

  1. (Germanic mythology, Norse mythology) The wife of Odin, and the Norse/Germanic goddess of married love, the heavenshome and hearth, after whom Friday is named (due to her being identified with Venus).
    Coordinate terms: OdinThor

Icelandic

Etymology

From Old Norse Frigg, from Proto-Germanic *Frijjō.

Proper noun

Frigg f

  1. Frigg
Declension

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Frigga#English

Frigga

English

English Wikipedia has an article on: Frigga
English Wikipedia has an article on: 77 Frigga
Etymology

Frigg +‎ -a, with suffix added to make the name more obviously feminine in English.

Pronunciation
Proper noun

Frigga

  1. Alternative form of Frigg
  2. (astronomy) 77 Frigga, a main belt asteroid.
Derived terms

UWAGA!

A teraz powtarzam niecne pytanie, na które ofitzjalni fielko-germańscy naukoftzy nie umio do tej pory odpowiedzieć, po mimo setek lat żmudnych badań i dociekliwie dociekliwych dociekań:

Czy odtfoszona Pra-Germańska / Proto-Germanic *Frijjō, staronordycka Old Norse Frigg, itp, to germańska Freja… i która z nich, czy obie, były żoną Oda,.. czy Odyna i dlaczego Pra-Słowiańska Przyjaźń / PR”y+JaZ’N’ jak zwykle była od nich starsza, czyli Pierwsza / PieRW+S”a ? 😈 😈😈


…..

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freja

Freja (także FreyjaFreyaFrøya, od staronord. Valfreyja lub Vanadís (Vanadis) co oznacza Pani Wanów[1]) – bogini nordycka należąca do wanów asgardzkich, bliźniacza siostra Frejra. Była bóstwem wegetacji, miłości, płodności i magii. Ponadto patronowała wojnie, połowa poległych wojowników podlegała jej władzy na polach Fólkvangr (reszta należała do Odyna – w Walhalli).


Jej mężem był Od (letnie słońce), córkami Hnoss („skarb”) i Gersimi („klejnot”). Ona, jej brat Frejr, ojciec Njörðr i matka są członkami Vaniru.


Według mitów uważana za najpiękniejszą z bogiń. Jej obecność na Asgardzie gwarantowała innym bóstwom szczęśliwe życie. Jej atrybutem był złoty naszyjnik Brisingamen. Freja posiadała też drugi naszyjnik, Hildiswin, wykuty przez dwóch braci — Daina i Nabbiego, krasnoludzkich złotników. Często towarzyszyły jej małe białe koty, które powoziły jej rydwanem, oraz dzik Hildisvíni. Wyobrażano ją często jako postać otoczoną okrągłym pierścieniem, który przedstawiał jej naszyjnik i symbolizował płodność.

Jest boginią, której poświęcono najwięcej mitów, zazwyczaj jednak stanowi w nich przedmiot pożądania olbrzymów, bogów i ludzi. Jej kult utrzymywał się do XIII wieku, a wiele jej atrybutów przypisano w Skandynawii Matce Bożej.

Od jej imienia w wielu językach germańskich pochodzi nazwa piątego dnia tygodnia: Friday (w języku angielskim), Freitag (w języku niemieckim) – dzień Frei.

Od staronordyckiego imienia bogini „Vanadís” pochodzi nazwa pierwiastka chemicznego wanad. Nazwę zaproponował w 1831, szwedzki chemik Nils Gabriel Sefström[2]. Nazwę Vanadis (240) nosi również planetoida odkryta w 1884 roku przez Alphonse Borrelly’ego.

Freja często przybierała postać sokoła. Miała swój pałac Folkwang w Asgardzie. U stołu wojowników Walhalli zajmowała miejsce równe Odynowi. Posiadała moc zmieniania ludzi w dziki.

Atrybuty Frei:

  • złoty naszyjnik Brisingamen,
  • Hildisvin – dzik będący jej wierzchowcem,
  • szata z sokolich piór,
  • powóz zaprzężony w uskrzydlone koty.
Przypisy
  1.  OrchardAndy.Dictionary of Norse myth and legend, London: Cassell, 1997, ISBN 0-304-34520-2OCLC36763217.
  2.  N.G.SefströmUeber das Vanadin, ein neues Metall, gefunden im Stangeneisen von Eckersholm, einer Eisenhütte, die ihr Erz von Taberg in Småland bezieht, „Annalen der Physik und Chemie”, 97 (1), 1831, s. 43–49, DOI10.1002/andp.18310970103 [dostęp 2019-08-01] (niem.).

…..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freyja

In Norse mythologyFreyja (/ˈfrə/Old Norse for „(the) Lady„) is a goddess associated with war, death, love, sex, beauty, fertility, gold, and seiðr. Freyja is the owner of the necklace Brísingamen, rides a chariot pulled by two cats, is accompanied by the boar Hildisvíni, and possesses a cloak of falcon feathers. By her husband Óðr, she is the mother of two daughters, Hnoss and Gersemi. Along with her brother Freyr, her father Njörðr, and her mother (Njörðr’s sister, unnamed in sources), she is a member of the Vanir. Stemming from Old Norse Freyja, modern forms of the name include FreyaFreyia, and Freja.

(…)

Etymology and names

The name Freyja transparently means (the) ‚lady’ and ultimately derives from Proto-Germanic *fraw(j)ōn.

Freyja is cognate with, for example,  Old Saxon frūa „lady, mistress” and Old High German frouwa (compare modern German Frau „lady”).[1] The theonym Freyja is thus considered to have been an epithet in origin, replacing a personal name that is now unattested.[2] As a result, either the original name became entirely taboo or another process occurred in which the goddess is a duplicate or hypostasis of another known goddess (see „Relation to Frigg and other goddesses and figures” below).

(…)

Theories

Relation to Frigg and other goddesses and figures

Due to numerous similarities, scholars have frequently connected Freyja with the goddess Frigg. The connection with Frigg and question of possible earlier identification of Freyja with Frigg in the Proto-Germanic period (Frigg and Freyja origin hypothesis) remains a matter of scholarly discourse.[61]

Regarding a Freyja-Frigg common origin hypothesis, scholar Stephan Grundy comments, the problem of whether Frigg or Freyja may have been a single goddess originally is a difficult one, made more so by the scantiness of pre-Viking Age references to Germanic goddesses, and the diverse quality of the sources. The best that can be done is to survey the arguments for and against their identity, and to see how well each can be supported.”[62]

Like the name of the group of gods to which Freyja belongs, the Vanir, the name Freyja is not attested outside of  Scandinavia, as opposed to the name of the goddess Frigg, who is attested as a goddess common among the Germanic peoples, and whose name is reconstructed as Proto-Germanic *Frijjō. Similar proof for the existence of a common Germanic goddess from which Freyja descends does not exist, but scholars have commented that this may simply be due to lack of evidence.[61]

In the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá, a figure by the name of Gullveig is burnt three times yet is three times reborn. After her third rebirth, she is known as Heiðr. This event is generally accepted as precipitating the Æsir–Vanir War. Starting with scholar Gabriel Turville-Petre, scholars such as Rudolf SimekAndy Orchard, and John Lindow have theorized that Gullveig/Heiðr is the same figure as Freyja, and that her involvement with the Æsir somehow led to the events of the Æsir–Vanir War.[63]

Outside of theories connecting Freyja with the goddess Frigg, some scholars, such as Hilda Ellis Davidson and Britt-Mari Näsström [sv], have theorized that other goddesses in Norse mythology, such as GefjonGerðr, and Skaði, may be forms of Freyja in different roles or ages.[64]

(…)

The Oriental hypothesis

Gustav Neckel, writing in 1920, connects Freyja to the Phrygian goddess Cybele. According to Neckel, both goddesses can be interpreted as „fertility goddesses” and other potential resemblances have been noted. Some scholars have suggested that the image of Cybele subsequently influenced the iconography of Freyja, the lions drawing the former’s chariot becoming large cats. These observations became an extremely common observation in works regarding Old Norse religion until at least the early 1990s. In her book-length study of scholarship on the topic of Freyja, Britt-Mari Näsström (1995) is highly critical of this deduction; Näsström says that „these ‚parallels’ are due to sheer ignorance about the characteristics of Cybele; scholars have not troubled to look into the resemblances and differences between the two goddesses, if any, in support for their arguments for a common origin.”[67]

(…)


UWAGA!

Czyli logicznie słowo Friday pochodzi nie wiadomo od kogo lub czego!!!


…..

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frejr

Frejr (także Frej, Frey, Freyr, Yngwe) – bóstwo falliczne z rodu Wanów, bóg urodzaju, roślinności, pokoju, płodności, bogactwa i radości, syn Njörðra i Skadi (albo nieznanej z imienia siostry Njörda), brat Frei. Władca świetlistych Alfów, jego małżonką jest uosabiająca ziemię  Gerda.

Historycznie w święto Jul składa mu się ofiary z dzika i konia. W religii germańskiej koń związany jest przede wszystkim z tym bogiem i odgrywa dużą rolę w kultach urodzaju i płodności o jednoznacznie fallicznym charakterze.

Zobacz też

…..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freyr

Believed to depict Freyr, viking age.

Freyr (Old Norse: Lord), sometimes anglicized as Frey, is a widely attested god associated with sacral kingship, virility and prosperity, with sunshine and fair weather, and pictured as a phallic fertility god in Norse mythology. Freyr is said to „bestow peace and pleasure on mortals”. Freyr, sometimes referred to as Yngvi-Freyr, was especially associated with Sweden and seen as an ancestor of the Swedish royal house.

In the Icelandic books the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, Freyr is presented as one of the Vanir, the son of the sea god Njörðr, or Njord as well as the twin brother of the goddess Freyja. (…)

…..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraujaz

the ithyphallic Rällinge statue, interpreted as a Viking Age depiction of Freyr

*Fraujaz or *Frauwaz (Old High German frô for earlier frôjo, frouwoOld Saxon frao, frōioGothic fraujaOld English frēaOld Norse  freyr), feminine *Frawjōn (OHG frouwa, Old Saxon frūa, Old English frōwe, Goth. *fraujōOld Norse freyja) is a Common Germanic  honorific meaning „lord„, „lady„, especially of deities.

The epithet came to be taken as the proper name of two separate deities in Norse mythologyFreyr and Freyja. In both Old Norse and Old High German the female epithet became a female honorific „lady„, in German Frau further weakened to the standard address „Mrs.” and further to the normal word for „woman„, replacing earlier wîp (English wife) and qinô (English queen) „woman”.

Just like Norse Freyja is usually interpreted as a hypostasis of *Frijjō (Frigg), Norse Freyr is associated with Ingwaz (Yngvi) based on the Ynglingasaga which names Yngvi-Freyr as the ancestor of the kings of Sweden, which as Common Germanic *Ingwia-fraujaz would have designated the „lord of the Ingvaeones. Both Freyr and Freyja are represented zoomorphically by the pig: Freyr has Gullinbursti („golden bristles”) while Freyja has Hildisvíni has („battle-pig”), and one of Freyja’s many names is Syr, i.e. „sow”.

The term’s etymology is ultimately from a PIE *pro-w-(y)o-s, containing *pro- „in front” (c.f. firstFürst and Sanskrit  purohita „high priest”, lit. „placed foremost or in front”).[1] 

Variants indicate n-stems *fraujan-*frōwōn-. The feminine *frawjōn „lady, domina” in Old English is attested only in a single isolated occurrence as frēo „woman” in the translation of the fragmentary Old Saxon Genesis poem, in the alliterating phrase frēo fægroste „fairest of women”.[2] The stem was confused from early times with *frīj-, which has variants frēo-, frīo-, frēa- (a contraction of *īj- and a following back vowel) beside a less frequent frīg- (/fri:j-/), by development of a glide between ī and a following front vowel. The two forms would originally have figured in complementary distribution within the same paradigm (e.g. masculine nominative singular frēo, masculine genitive singular frīges), but in attested Old English analogical forms are already present and the distribution is no longer complementary[3]

For Old Norse, Snorri says that freyja is a tignarnafn (name of honour) derived from the goddess, that grand ladies, rîkiskonur, are freyjur. The goddess should be in Swed. Fröa, Dan. Frøe; the Swed. folk-song of Thor’s hammer calls Freyja Froijenborg (the Dan. Fridlefsborg), a Danish one has already the foreign Fru. Saxo is silent about this goddess and her father altogether; he would no doubt have named her Fröa. The Second Merseburg Charm may have Frûa = Frôwa as the proper name of the goddess, although the word in question is difficult to read. (…)

…..

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frijj%C5%8D

The Welschingen-B bracteate (IK 389)

The Oberwerschen-B bracteate (IK 311)

*Frijjō („Frigg-Frija”) is the reconstructed name or epithet of a hypothetical Common Germanic love goddess, the most prominent female member of the *Ansiwiz (gods), and often identified as the spouse of the chief god, *Wōdanaz (WodenOdin).

Name

The theonyms in West Germanic are Anglo-Saxon *FrīgOld High German FrījaLow German (Lower SaxonyFrike, Freke (Fru Freen, Fru Frien, Fru Freke, Fru Frick, Fuik, Frie)[1] and Lombardic Frea. The name of the Anglo-Saxon goddess is attested only in the name of the weekday, although frīg (strong feminine) as a common noun meaning „love” (in the singular) or „affections, embraces” (in the plural) is attested in poetry.[2]

The name *Frijjō (Old Norse Frigg, Old High German Frīja) ultimately derives from PIE *prih-y(a)h, cognate to Sanskrit priya „dear, beloved„,[3] which however in Germanic split into two etymons, one covering the semantic field of „love, courtship, friendship” (English friend), the other the field of „freedom” (English free).[4]

The weekday Friday in English is named after for the goddess Frigg (Old English frigedæg). Friday in Old Norse was called both Freyjudagr  and Frjádagr, in Faröese fríggjadagur, and in Old High German never *Frouwûntac, but Frîatac, Frîgetac, now Freitag.

There is some evidence that the epithet *frawjō „lady” was applied to this goddess. The two names were confused from early times, especially in Old English, where the stem of *frīj- appears as frēo-, frīo-, frēa- (a contraction of *īj- and a following back vowel) beside a less frequent stem form frīg- (/fri:j-/), by development of a glide between ī and a following front vowel. The two forms would originally have figured in complementary distribution within the same paradigm (e.g. masculine nominative singular frēo, masculine genitive singular  frīges), but in attested Old English analogical forms are already present and the distribution is no longer complementary[5] Jacob Grimm stated „We gather from all this, that the forms and even the meanings of the two names border closely on one another. Freyja means the gladsome, gladdening, sweet, gracious goddess, Frigg the free, beautiful, loveable; to the former attaches the general notion of frau (mistress), to the latter that of frî (woman).” The linguistic discussion of these names is complicated by issues of Germanic  Verschärfung. Old Norse Friggfriggjar-dagr is related to frakkr „free, bold„, cognate to Old English frēo, Gothic freis „free„.

Characteristics

Both Frigg and Freyja are associated with weaving, combining the aspects of a love goddess and a domestic goddess.[6] In Sweden and some parts of Germany, the asterism of Orion’s Belt is known as her distaff or spindle.[7]

B7 bracteates

The „woman” type of bracteates (Frauenbrakteaten, type B7, also called Fürstenberg or Oberwerschen type) has been identified as possibly depicting Frigg-Frija.

There are five known bracteates of this type: IK 259 (Großfahner-B); IK 311 (Oberwerschen-B); IK 350 (site of discovery unknown, reportedly from „south-western Germany”); IK 389 (Welschingen-B); and IK 391 (Gudme II-B).[8] In each of them the female figure depicted is holding a cross-shaped staff, interpreted as a distaff. IK 350 is additionally decorated with a number of crosses, and IK 259 has additional swastikas. Iconographically related are five gold bracteates found in Hüfingen, Bavaria.[8]

See also
References
  1. ^ The k isn’t a reflex of Old Norse ggj (as implied by Paul Hermann 1903), but a diminutive, as it were Frija-keFrea-ke (Elard Hugo Meyer, Mythologie der Germanen 1903).
  2. ^ OED s.v. „Friday”.
  3. ^ Wodtko et al., Nomina im Indogermanischen Lexikon, Heidelberg (2008) ISBN978-3-8253-5359-9, s.v. „preyH”, pp. 568-573.
  4. ^ Gothic frijôn translates φιλειν, αγαπαν „to love”. Anglo-Saxonfreoganfreon Old Saxon friehan. Also cognate are the Germanic terms for friend. The Old High German verb frijôn „nubere, uxorem ducere, woo, to take a wife” (Modern German freien) contrasts withfrijan „liberare”. It is foreign to Upper German, and was probably adopted from Low German (Grimm).
  5. ^ OED s.v. „free”; A. Campbell Old Eng. Gram. (1959) §410.
  6. ^ Mythological Women: Studies in Memory of Lotte Motz, 1922-1997, Fassbaender, 2002, ISBN978-3-900538-73-6, p. 70; M. J. Enright, The Goddess Who Weaves. Some Iconographic Aspects of Bracteates of the Fürstenberg Type. In: FMSt 24, 1990, 54-70.
  7. ^ Edwardes and Spence (1913); in Swedish both Friggerock „Frigg’s distaff” and Frejerock „Freyja’s Distaff”, see Schön, Ebbe. (2004). Asa-Tors hammare, Gudar och jättar i tro och tradition. Fält & Hässler, Värnamo. p. 228.
  8. Jump up to:ab Pesch (2007:125-128)
Further reading
External links

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frigg_and_Freyja_common_origin_hypothesis

Frigg and Freyja common origin hypothesis

Due to numerous similarities, some scholars have proposed that the Old Norse goddesses Frigg and Freyja descend from a common entity from the Proto-Germanic period.[1]

Regarding a Freyja-Frigg common origin hypothesis, scholar Stephan Grundy comments that „the problem of whether Frigg or Freyja may have been a single goddess originally is a difficult one, made more so by the scantiness of pre-Viking Age references to Germanic goddesses, and the diverse quality of the sources. The best that can be done is to survey the arguments for and against their identity, and to see how well each can be supported.”[2]

Unlike Frigg but like the name of the group of gods to which Freyja belongs, the Vanir, the name Freyja is not attested outside of Scandinavia, as opposed to the name of the goddess Frigg, who is attested as a goddess common among the Germanic peoples, and whose name is reconstructed as Proto-Germanic *Frijjō. Similar proof for the existence of a common Germanic goddess from which Freyja descends does not exist, but scholars have commented that this may simply be due to the scarcity of evidence outside of the North Germanic record.[1]

Notes
  1. Jump up to:ab Grundy (1998), pp. 56–66.
  2. ^ Grundy (1998), p. 57.
References

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/frawj%C7%AD

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/frawjǭ

Proto-Germanic

Etymology

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. )


Pronunciation
  • IPA(key)/ˈɸrɑw.jɔ̃ː/
Noun

*frawjǭ f

  1. lady, wife of a lord (woman of high standing)
Inflection
Declension of *frawjǭ (ōn-stem)
singular plural
nominative *frawjǭ *frawjōniz
vocative *frawjǭ *frawjōniz
accusative *frawjōnų *frawjōnunz
genitive *frawjōniz *frawjōnǫ̂
dative *frawjōni *frawjōmaz
instrumental *frawjōnē *frawjōmiz
Related terms
Descendants

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/frij%C5%8Dn%C4%85

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/frijōną

Proto-Germanic

Etymology

From *frijaz.

Pronunciation
  • IPA(key)/ˈɸri.jɔː.nɑ̃/
Verb

*frijōną

  1. to love
  2. to free
  3. to like
Inflection
Antonyms
Derived terms
Descendants

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/frijaz

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/frijaz

Proto-Germanic

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *priHós (beloved). The original meaning was probably something like “from one’s own clan”, from which a meaning “being a free man, not a serf” developed.

Pronunciation
Adjective

*frijaz

  1. free

Inflection

Derived terms
Related terms
Descendants

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/free#English

free

English

Etymology

From Middle English freefrefreo, from Old English frēo (free), from Proto-Germanic *frijaz (beloved, not in bondage), from Proto-Indo-European *priHós (dear, beloved), from *preyH- (to love, to please). Related to friend. Cognate with West Frisian frij (free)Dutch vrij (free)Low German free (free)German frei (free)Friede (peace)DanishSwedish and Norwegian fri (free)Sanskrit  प्रिय (priyá).

Germanic and Celtic are the only Indo-European language branches in which the PIE word with the meaning of „dear, beloved” acquired the additional meaning of „free” in the sense of „not in bondage”. This was an extension of the idea of „characteristic of those who are dear and beloved”, in other words friends and tribe members (in contrast to unfree inhabitants from other tribes and prisoners of war, many of which were among the slaves – compare the Latin use of liberi to mean both „free persons” and „children of a family”).[1][2]

The verb comes from Middle English freenfreoȝen, from Old English frēonfrēoġan (to free; make free).

Pronunciation

A sign advertising free beer (obtainable without payment), typically with some required purchase/catch.

A „buy one get one free” sign at a flower stand (obtainable without additional payment)

This food product is labelled „fat free„, meaning it contains no fat

Adjective

free (comparative freersuperlative freest)

  1. (social) Unconstrained.
    He was given free rein to do whatever he wanted.
    Synonyms: unconstrainedunfetteredunhindered
    Antonyms: constrainedrestricted
    1. Not imprisoned or enslaved.
      free man
      Antonyms: boundenslavedimprisoned
    2. Unconstrained by timidity or distrust
      Synonyms: unreservedfrankcommunicative
    3. Generousliberal.
      He’s very free with his money.
    4. (obsolete) Clear of offence or crime; guiltless; innocent.
    5. Without obligations.
      free time
    6. Thrown open, or made accessible, to all; to be enjoyed without limitations; unrestricted; not obstructed, engrossed, or appropriated; open; said of a thing to be possessed or enjoyed.
      free school
    7. Not arbitrary or despotic; assuring liberty; defending individual rights against encroachment by any person or class; instituted by a free people; said of a government, institutions, etc.
      This is a free country.
    8. (software) With no or only freedom-preserving limitations on distribution or modification.
      OpenOffice is free software.
      Synonym: libre
      Antonym: proprietary
    9. (software) Intended for release, as opposed to a checked version.
  2. Obtainable without any payment.
    The government provides free health care.
    It’s free real estate.
    Synonyms: free of chargegratis
    1. (by extension, chiefly advertising slang) complimentary
      Buy a TV to get a free DVD player!
  3. (abstract) Unconstrained.
    1. (mathematics) Unconstrained by relators.
      the free group on three generators
    2. (mathematics, logic) Unconstrained by quantifiers.
      {\displaystyle z} is the free variable in {\displaystyle \forall x\exists y:xy=z}.
      Antonym: bound
    3. (programming) Unconstrained of identifiers, not bound.
      Synonym: unbound
      Antonym: bound
    4. (linguistics) (of a morpheme) That can be used by itself, unattached to another morpheme.
  4. (physical) Unconstrained.
    1. Unobstructed, without blockages.
      the drain was free
      Synonyms: clearunobstructed
      Antonyms: blockedobstructed
    2. Unattached or uncombined.
      free radical
      Synonyms: looseunfastenedsee also Thesaurus:loose
    3. Not currently in use; not taken; unoccupied.
      You can sit on this chair; it’s free.
    4. (botany, mycology) Not attachedloose.
      In this group of mushrooms, the gills are free.
  5. Without; not containing (what is specified); exempt; clear; liberated.
    We had a wholesome, filling meal, free of meat. I would like to live free from care in the mountains.
    Synonym: without
  6. (dated) Ready; eager; acting without spurring or whipping; spirited.
    free horse
  7. (dated) Invested with a particular freedom or franchise; enjoying certain immunities or privileges; admitted to special rights; followed by of.
  8. (Britain, law, obsolete) Certain or honourable; the opposite of base.
    free service;  free socage
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Burrill to this entry?)
  9. (law) Privileged or individual; the opposite of common.
    free fishery;  a free warren
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Burrill to this entry?)
Antonyms
Hyponyms
Derived terms
Related terms
Related terms of free
Adverb

free (comparative more freesuperlative most free)

  1. Without needing to pay.
    I got this bike free.
    Synonyms: for freefor nothing
  2. (obsolete) Freely; willingly.
Verb

A painting depicting mythical Greek hero Perseus freeing Andromeda, who was imprisoned by a sea monster

free (third-person singular simple present freespresent participle freeingsimple past and past participle freed)

  1. (transitive) To make free; set at libertyrelease.
  2. (transitive) To rid of something that confines or oppresses.
Derived terms
Synonyms
Noun

free (plural frees)

  1. (Australian rules football, Gaelic football) Abbreviation of free kick.
  2. free transfer
  3. (hurling) The usual means of restarting play after a foul is committed, where the non-offending team restarts from where the foul was committed.
References
  1. free” in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001–2019.
  2. „frei” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache
Anagrams

…..

https://pl.wiktionary.org/wiki/free

free (język angielski)

free (1.3)

wymowa:
bryt. IPA/ˈfɹiː/SAMPA/”fr\i:/ wymowa brytyjska ?/i

Cockney IPA[ˈfɹəi]SAMPA/”fr\@i/
amer. IPA/ˈfɻi/SAMPA/”fr\`i/ wymowa amerykańska ?/i
szkoc. IPA[ˈfɾiː]SAMPA/”f4i:/
homofon: three (w akcentach z th-fronting)
znaczenia:

przymiotnik

(1.1) wolny
(1.2) swobodny
(1.3) darmowy

przyimek

(2.1) free ofbez

czasownik

(3.1) uwolnić
(3.2) zwolnić

przysłówek

(4.1) swobodnie
(4.2) darmowo

przyrostek

(5.1) nie-
(5.2) bez-
odmiana:
(1.1–3) st. wyższy freer; st. najwyższy freest
(2.1) nieodm.
(3.1,2) free, freed, freed, frees, freeing
(4.1–2) st. wyższy more free; st. najwyższy most free
(5.1,2) nieodm.
przykłady:
(1.1) This program has been released under a free license. → Ten program wydano na wolnej licencji.
(2.1) This juice is free of sugar. → Ten sok jest bez cukru.
kolokacje:
(2.1) free of charge
wyrazy pokrewne:
rzecz. freedomfreer
przysł. freely
przym. freed
związki frazeologiczne:
free fall • freeball • freebie
etymologia:
st.ang. frēo

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/frij%C5%8Dndz

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/frijōndz

Proto-Germanic

Etymology

Present participle of *frijōną, equivalent to *frijōną +‎ *-ndz.

Pronunciation
  • IPA(key)/ˈɸri.jɔːndz/
Noun

*frijōndz m

  1. friendloved one
Inflection
Declension of *frijōndz (consonant stem)
singular plural
nominative *frijōndz *frijōndiz
vocative *frijōnd *frijōndiz
accusative *frijōndų *frijōndunz
genitive *frijōndiz *frijōndǫ̂
dative *frijōndi *frijōndumaz
instrumental *frijōndē *frijōndumiz
Derived terms
Related terms
Antonyms
Descendants

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/friend

friend

English

English Wikipedia has an article on: Friendship

Etymology

From Middle English frendfreend, from Old English frēond (friend, relative, lover, literally loving[-one), from Proto-Germanic  *frijōndz (lover, friend), from Proto-Indo-European *prēy-*prāy- (to like, love), equivalent to free +‎ -nd. Cognate with Saterland Frisian Früünd (friend)West Frisian freonfroenfreondinne (friend)Dutch vriend (friend)Low German FrundFründ (friend, relative)German Freund (friend)Danish frænde (kinsman)Swedish frände (kinsman, relative)Icelandic frændi (kinsman), Gothic  𐍆𐍂𐌹𐌾𐍉𐌽𐌳𐍃 (frijōndsfriend). More at free.

Pronunciation 
Noun

friend (plural friends)

  1. A person other than a family memberspouse or lover whose company one enjoys and towards whom one feels affection.
    John and I have been friends ever since we were roommates at college.   Trust is important between friends.   I used to find it hard to make friends when I was shy.
  2. boyfriend or girlfriend.
  3. An associate who provides assistance.
    The Automobile Association is every motorist’s friend.   The police is every law-abiding citizen’s friend.
  4. A person with whom one is vaguely or indirectly acquainted
    friend of a friend;  I added him as a friend on Facebook, but I hardly know him.
  5. A person who backs or supports something.
    I’m not a friend of cheap wine.
  6. (informal) An object or idea that can be used for good.
    Wiktionary is your friend.
  7. (colloquial, ironic, used only in the vocative) Used as a form of address when warning someone.
    You’d better watch it, friend.
  8. (object-oriented programming) A function or class granted special access to the private and protected members of another class.
  9. (climbing) A spring-loaded camming device.
  10. (obsolete) A paramour of either sex.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Shakespeare to this entry?)
  11. (Scotland, obsolete) A relative.
Synonyms
Antonyms
Usage notes
  • In older texts and certain dialects, the phrase to friend means „as a friend or an ally”, for exampleː „with God to frend (Spenser)”. The antonym to the phrase to friend is to fiend.
Derived terms
Descendants
Translations

See friend/translations § Noun.

Verb

friend (third-person singular simple present friendspresent participle friendingsimple past and past participle friended)

  1. (transitive, obsolete) To act as a friend to, to befriend; to be friendly to, to help.
  2. (transitive) To add (a person) to a list of friends on a social networking site; to officially designate (someone) as a friend.
Synonyms
Antonyms
Anagrams

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https://pl.wiktionary.org/wiki/friend

friend (język angielski)

wymowa:
IPA/fɹɛnd/SAMPA/fr\End/
wymowa amerykańska ?/i
wymowa brytyjska ?/i
znaczenia:

rzeczownik

(1.1) przyjaciel

czasownik przechodni

(2.1) być czyimś przyjacielem
odmiana:
(1) lm friends
(2) to friend, friended, friended; he friends; be friending
przykłady:
(1.1) John and Mark are friends. → Jan i Marek  przyjaciółmi.
(2.1) If I friend someoneI expect them to friend me back. → Jeśli jestem czyimś przyjacielemoczekuję że także obdarza mnie przyjaźnią.
kolokacje:
(1.1) be friends with sbbest friend
synonimy:
(1.1) colleaguecomradecompanionpalbuddypartnerallylover
antonimy:
(1.1) enemyfoe
wyrazy pokrewne:
(1.1) przym. friendlyfriendlessrzecz. friendshipfriendlinessczas. befriend
związki frazeologiczne:
(1.1) make friends with sb → zaprzyjaźnić się z kimśnext frienda friend in need is a friend indeed
etymologia:
(1.1) średnioang. frend

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/priH%C3%B3s

Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/priHós

Proto-Indo-European

Etymology

From *preyH- +‎ *-ós.

Adjective

*priHós[1][2][3][4]

  1. dearbeloved
  2. happyfree
Inflection
Thematic
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *priHós *priHóh₁ *priHóes
vocative *priHé *priHóh₁ *priHóes
accusative *priHóm *priHóh₁ *priHóms
genitive *priHósyo *? *priHóoHom
ablative *priHéad *? *priHómos
dative *priHóey *? *priHómos
locative *priHéy*priHóy *? *priHóysu
instrumental *priHóh₁ *? *priHṓys
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *priHéh₂ *priHéh₂h₁(e) *priHéh₂es
vocative *priHéh₂ *priHéh₂h₁(e) *priHéh₂es
accusative *priHā́m *priHéh₂h₁(e) *priHéh₂m̥s
genitive *priHéh₂s *? *priHéh₂oHom
ablative *priHéh₂s *? *priHéh₂mos
dative *priHéh₂ey *? *priHéh₂mos
locative *priHéh₂*priHéh₂i *? *priHéh₂su
instrumental *priHéh₂h₁ *? *priHéh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *priHóm *priHóy(h₁) *priHéh₂
vocative *priHóm *priHóy(h₁) *priHéh₂
accusative *priHóm *priHóy(h₁) *priHéh₂
genitive *priHósyo *? *priHóoHom
ablative *priHéad *? *priHómos
dative *priHóey *? *priHómos
locative *priHéy*priHóy *? *priHóysu
instrumental *priHóh₁ *? *priHṓys
Descendants
References
  1. ↑ Jump up to:1.01.11.2 Mallory, J. P.Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 222: “*prihₓós”
  2. ↑ Jump up to:2.02.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*fri(j)ōn-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 155: “*priH-o-”
  3. De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “proprius”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 493: “*priH-o-”
  4. Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/preyH-

Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/preyH-

Proto-Indo-European

Root

*preyH-[1][2][3][4][5][6]

  1. to love, to please
Derived terms
  • *príH-yeti (ye-present)[1]
  • *priH-né-H-ti ~ *priH-n-H-énti (nasal-infix present)[4]
    • Indo-Iranian: *priHnáHti
      • Indo-Aryan: *priHnáHti
      • Iranian: *friHnáHti (to rejoice, please)[5]
        • Avestan: 𐬟𐬭𐬍 (frīnāito rejoice, please)
        • Iranian: *ā-friHnaHti[5]
          • Younger Avestan: 𐬁𐬟𐬭 (āfrīnāmito bless)
          • Khotanese: (āvun-to approve)
          • Kurdish:
            Northern Kurdish: afrandin (āfrāndinto create)
            Central Kurdish: ئافراندن‎ (āfrāndinto create)
          • Parthian: (’fryn-to bless)
          • Middle Persian:
            • Manichaean: (’fryn-), (’fwr-)(’pwr-to create, to bless)
            • Book Pahlavi: (’p̄lyn-), (’p̄wlto create, to bless)
          • Sogdian: (’’pryn) (Buddhist), (’fryn) (Christian), (’’fryn)(’’βrynto create) (Manichaean)
          •  Old Armenian: աւրհնեմ (awrhnem)օրհնեմ (ōrhnem)
  • *prḗy-s-t ~ *préy-s-n̥t (s-aorist)[4]
  • *priH-ós (beloved, happy)[1][3][2]
References
  1. ↑ Jump up to:1.01.11.2 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*fri(j)ōn-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 155: “*priH-”
  2. ↑ Jump up to:2.02.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “proprius”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 493: “*priH-”
  3. ↑ Jump up to:3.03.1 Mallory, J. P.Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 343: “*prihₓ-”
  4. ↑ Jump up to:4.04.14.2 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*preiH-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, page 87
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.05.15.2 Cheung, Johnny (2007), “fraiH”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 2), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 87: “*preiH-”
  6. Derksen, Rick (2008), “*prijati”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 420: “*priH-”

…..

A oto pochodzenie znaczenia słowa Piątek z tzw. j. greckiego, patrz:

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%A0%CE%B1%CF%81%CE%B1%CF%83%CE%BA%CE%B5%CF%85%CE%AE

Παρασκευή

Ancient Greek

English Wikipedia has an article on: Paraskevi
Etymology

From παρασκευή (paraskeuḗpreparation).

Pronunciation
Proper noun

Πᾰρᾰσκευή  (Paraskeuḗf (genitive Πᾰρᾰσκευῆς); first declension

  1. Friday (day of preparation for the Sabbath)
Inflection
Descendants
References

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CF%80%CE%B1%CF%81%CE%B1%CF%83%CE%BA%CE%B5%CF%85%CE%AE#Ancient_Greek

παρασκευή

Ancient Greek

Etymology

From παρασκευάζω (paraskeuázōprepare)

Pronunciation
Noun

πᾰρᾰσκευή  (paraskeuḗf (genitive πᾰρᾰσκευῆς); first declension

  1. preparationpreparing
  2. providingprocuring; way of providing or procuring
  3. the things being prepared, provided, or procured
    1. (military) armamentarmstransportation, etc.
  4. (Koine) the day of preparation before the (JewishSabbathFridaywith or without ἡμέρᾱ (hēmérā)
Declension
Derived terms
Descendants
→ Chechen: пӏераска (ṗeraska)
→ Ingush: пӏаьраска (ṗäraska)
References

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CF%80%CE%B1%CF%81%CE%B1%CF%83%CE%BA%CE%B5%CF%85%CE%AC%CE%B6%CF%89#Ancient_Greek

παρασκευάζω

Ancient Greek

Etymology

From παρά (pará) + σκευάζω (skeuázōI make, prepare) or παρασκευή (paraskeuḗ) +‎ -άζω (-ázō).

Pronunciation
Verb

πᾰρᾰσκευᾰ́ζω  (paraskeuázō)

  1. prepare, make ready
  2. procure
  3. make
Conjugation
Descendants
Further reading

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CF%80%CE%B1%CF%81%CE%AC#Ancient_Greek

παρά

Ancient Greek

Alternative forms
Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *preh₂-. Compare Mycenaean Greek 𐀞𐀫 (pa-ro).

Pronunciation
Preposition

πᾰρᾰ́  (pará) (governs the genitivedative and accusative)

  1. (+ genitive)
    1. from
    2. because of
  2. (+ dative)
    1. besidebynear
  3. (+ accusative)
    1. contrary to
Descendants
Further reading

…..

O tym *preh₂-, czy *per- z którego to pierwsze wywodzi się pisałem już tu:

https://skrbh.wordpress.com/2019/07/02/191-wtornie-ubezdzwiecznione-liczebniki-indogermanskie-i-ich-wyzej-energetyczne-pierwotne-pra-slowianskie-rdzenie-pierwsy-prw-pr-02/

https://skrbh.wordpress.com/2019/07/18/194-wtornie-ubezdzwiecznione-liczebniki-indogermanskie-i-ich-wysokoenergetyczne-pierwotne-pra-slowianskie-rdzenie-pierwsy-prw-pr-05/

…..

W drugiej części upowszechnię Pra-Słowiańskie źródłosłowy dla tych fielko-germańskich fierfszych i najważniejszych bogiń, czy też odtfoszonej jednej i tej samej bogini, żony Oda lub jak kto tam se woli Jednookiego Odyna… 🙂

Jedna uwaga do wpisu “220 Friday, Frigg, Frigga, Freja, *Frijjō, Sprzyjać, Przyjaciel, Przyjaźń, Przy i inne dowody na wtórność ubezdźwięcznień i zapożyczenia Od-Pra-Słowiańskie w językach bałtyjskich i germańskich 01

  1. Pingback: 221 Friday, Frigg, Frigga, Freja, *Frijjō, Sprzyjać, Przyjaciel, Przyjaźń, Przy i inne dowody na wtórność ubezdźwięcznień i zapożyczenia Od-Pra-Słowiańskie w językach bałtyjskich i germańskich 02 | SKRBH

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