268 Hide, sky, sceo, hose, shoe, hood, hat, custos, cutis, cassis, obscurus, cuddio, κύτος, σκῦτος, κεύθω, κύστις, skunā́ti i inne logiczne problemy ofitzjalnego jęsykosnaftzfa

A blue sky

…..

Oto ciąg dalszy zestawiania danych, wspomnianych już we wpisach 267 i 266.

W następnych częściach opiszę kolejne wtórne ubezdźwięcznione i zniekształcone postacie fielko-germańskie itp., ale przede wszystkim przedstawię ich pierwotne źródłosłowy, czyli postacie  Pra-Słowiańskie…

Zwróć uwagę na pojawiające się i znikające tzw. s-mobile, ale także różne dźwięki zapisywane jako T, H, R, W. Powrócę do tego zagadnienia w następnych wpisach…

Przypomnę, że na podstawie danych już porównanych, ale także i tych zamieszczonych poniżej twierdzę że:

  • oboczne postacie Pra-Słowiańskie są pierwotne wobec wtórnie ubezdźwięcznionych postaci fielko-germańskich, czy rzekomych indo-irańskich,
  • rzekome tzw. zapożyczenia od-irańskie, czy of-fielko-germańskie odnajdywane w j. słowiańskich mogą być o tyle prawdziwe,.. o ile wtórnie ubezdźwięcznione i zniekształcone postacie Pra-Słowiańskie, same wcześniej zostały zapożyczone do tych języków…

…..

https://pl.wiktionary.org/wiki/hide

hide (język angielski)

wymowa:
enPR: hīdIPA/haɪd/SAMPA/haId/
wymowa amerykańska?/i
?/i
znaczenia:

czasownik

(1.1) chowaćukrywać

rzeczownik

(2.1) kryjówka
(2.2) skóra zwierzęca
odmiana:
(1) hide, hid, hidden; he hides; be hiding
(2) lm hides
przykłady:
(1.1) She finds it hard to hide her dislike towards television films. → Trudno ukryć jej swoją niechęć do filmów telewizyjnych.
(1.1) When the shooting had startedI hid behind the car. → Kiedy zaczęła się strzelaninaschowałem się za samochodem.
etymologia:
st.ang. hȳdan
uwagi:
zobacz też: Aneks:Język angielski – czasowniki nieregularne

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hide#English

hide

English

Alternative forms
Pronunciation
Etymology 1

From Middle English hidenhuden, from Old English hȳdan (to hide, conceal, preserve), from Proto-Germanic *hūdijaną  (to conceal), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kew (to cover, wrap, encase), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kew  (to cover).

Cognate with Dutch huidenLow German (ver) hüden(ver) hüen (to hide, cover, conceal)Welsh cuddio (to hide)Latin custōsAncient Greek κεύθω (kthōto conceal)Sanskrit कुहरम् (kuharamcave). Related to hut and sky.

The verb was originally weak. In the King James Version of the Bible (1611) both hid and hidden are used for the past participle.

Verb

hide (third-person singular simple present hidespresent participle hidingsimple past hidpast participle hidden or (archaic) hid)

  1. (transitive) To put (something) in a place where it will be harder to discover or out of sight.
    Synonyms: concealhide awaysecrete
    Antonyms: discloseexposerevealshowuncover
    He hides his magazines under the bed.
    The politicians were accused of keeping information hidden from the public.
  2. (intransitive) To put oneself in a place where one will be harder to find or out of sight.
    Synonyms: go undercoverhide awayhide outlie low
    Antonyms: revealshow
Derived terms
Etymology 2

From Old English hȳd, from Proto-Germanic *hūdiz (compare West Frisian hûdDutch huidGerman Haut), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewt ‚skin, hide’ (compare Welsh cwd (scrotum)Latin cutis (skin)Lithuanian kutys (purse, money-belt)Ancient Greek κύτος (kútoshollow vessel)σκτος (skûtoscover, hide)), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kew, ‚to cover’. More at sky.

Noun

hide (plural hides)

  1. (countable) The skin of an animal.
    Synonyms: peltskin
  2. (obsolete or derogatory) The human skin.
  3. (uncountable, informal, usually US) One’s own life or personal safety, especially when in peril.
  4. (countable) (mainly British) A covered structure from which hunters, birdwatchers, etc can observe animals without scaring them.
  5. (countable, architecture) A secret room for hiding oneself or valuables; a hideaway.
  6. (countable) A covered structure to which a pet animal can retreat, as is recommended for snakes.
Derived terms
Terms derived from the noun „hide” (etymology 2)
Verb

hide (third-person singular simple present hidespresent participle hidingsimple past and past participle hided)

  1. To beat with a whip made from hide.

(…)

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/h%C5%ABdijan%C4%85

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hūdijaną

Proto-Germanic

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *(s)kew (to cover, encase), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kew (to hide, wrap up, conceal). Cognate with Welsh cuddio (hide)Latin cū̆stōs (guard, protector)Ancient Greek κεύθω (kthōto conceal).

Pronunciation
  • IPA(key)/ˈxuː.ði.jɑ.nɑ̃/
Verb

*hūdijaną

  1. to hideconceal
Inflection
Related terms
Descendants

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/h%C5%ABdiz

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hūdiz

Proto-Germanic

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *kéwHtis (bedecking, hide, skin), from *kewH (to cover, hide). Cognate with Latin  cutis.

Pronunciation
Noun

*hūdiz f[1]

  1. hideskin

Inflection

Declension of *hūdiz (i-stem)
singular plural
nominative *hūdiz *hūdīz
vocative *hūdi *hūdīz
accusative *hūdį *hūdinz
genitive *hūdīz *hūdijǫ̂
dative *hūdī *hūdimaz
instrumental *hūdī *hūdimiz
Related terms
Descendants
References
  1. Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*hūdi-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 251

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https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/h%C5%ABdij%C7%AD&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Germanic/hūdijǭ.

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https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/k%C3%A9wHtis&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/kéwHtis.

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https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kewH-&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/kewH-.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)kewd%CA%B0-&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/(s)kew-.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)kew-t-&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/(s)kewt-.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)kew-&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/(s)kew-.

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https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have an entry for कुहरम्.

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https://pl.wiktionary.org/wiki/sky

sky (język angielski)

sky (1.1)
wymowa:
IPA/skaɪ/SAMPA/skaI/
wymowa amerykańska?/i
wymowa brytyjska?/i
lm IPA/skaɪs/ wymowa amerykańska?/i
?/i ?/i
znaczenia:

rzeczownik

(1.1) niebo (niebieska przestrzeń nad nami, a nie niebo w sensie religijnym)
(1.2) daw. chmura
odmiana:
(1) lp sky; lm skies
przykłady:
(1.1) The sky is clear. → Niebo jest bezchmurne.
(1.1) The first star is in the skyyou can now unwrap your presents. → Na niebie już jest pierwsza gwiazdamożecie teraz rozpakować swoje prezenty.
(1.1) Night ‚neath the northern skiesloneblackand grim:
Naught but the starlight lies ‚twixt heavenand him.
[1] →
Noc pod północnymi niebamisamotnaczarnaponura
Nic prócz światła gwiazd między niebem a nim.
synonimy:
(1.1) heaven
związki frazeologiczne:
mackerel sky
etymologia:
st.ang. scēo << st.nord. ský → chmura
uwagi:
por. heaven
źródła:
  1.  E. Pauline Johnson: The Camper

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/sky#English

sky

English

English Wikipedia has an article on: sky

A blue sky

Alternative forms
Etymology

From Middle English sky, from Old Norse ský (cloud), from Proto-Germanic *skiw*skiwô (cloud, cloud cover, haze), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kew (to cover, hide, cloud). Cognate with Old English scēo (cloud)Old Saxon scioskioskeo (light cloud cover)DanishSwedish and Norwegian Bokmål sky (cloud)Old Irish ceo (mist, fog)Irish ceo (mist, fog). Also related to Old English scūa (shadow, darkness)Latin obscūrus (dark, shadowy)Sanskrit स्कुनाति  (skunā́ti, he covers). See also English hidehuthousehoseshoe.

Partially displaced Middle English heven, from Old English heofon (whence English heaven). Compare German Himmel and Dutch hemel.

Pronunciation
Noun

sky (plural skies)

  1. The atmosphere above a given point, especially as visible from the ground during the day.
    That year, a meteor fell from the sky.
  2. The part of the sky which can be seen from a specific place or at a specific time; its condition, climate etc.
    I lay back under a warm Texas sky.
    We’re not sure how long the cloudy skies will last.
  3. Heaven.
    This mortal has incurred the wrath of the skies.
  4. Ellipsis of sky blue
  5. (mathematics, theoretical physics) The set of all lightlike lines (or directions) passing through a given point in space-time.
  6. (colloquial, dated) In an art gallery, the upper rows of pictures that cannot easily be seen.
  7. (obsolete) A cloud.
Usage notes

Usually the word can be used correctly in either the singular or plural form, but the plural is now mainly poetic.

Synonyms
Derived terms
Related terms
Verb

sky (third-person singular simple present skiespresent participle skyingsimple past and past participle skied or skyed)

  1. (sports) To hit, kick or throw (a ball) extremely high.
  2. (sports) To clear (a hurdle, high jump bar, etc.) by a large margin.
  3. (colloquial, dated) To hang (a picture on exhibition) near the top of a wall, where it cannot be well seen.
  4. (colloquial) To drink something from a container without one’s lips touching the container.
References

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/sceo#Old_English

sceo

Old English

Alternative forms
Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *skiwô*skiw (cloud, cloud cover, haze), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)k(‚)ew (sky, cloud). Cognate with Old Saxon scioskioskeo (light cloud cover)Old Norse ský (cloud)Old Irish ceó (sky).

Pronunciation
Noun

sċēo m

  1. cloud
Usage notes
  • The exact gender of sċēo is uncertain, as it is attested only once without reference to gender. The proto-Germanic forms are reconstructed for *skiwô (masculine n-stem) and *skiwją (neuter a-stem; derived from the masculine). Based on the form of the Old English word, and the closely related Old Saxon scio (a masculine n-stem), Old English scēo is believed to derive from *skiwô and assumed masculine. [1]
Declension
Descendants
References
  1. Falk, Torp, Wortschatz der germanischen Spracheinheit, „skivan”.

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/skiwj%C4%85

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/skiw

Proto-Germanic

Etymology

From *skiwô.

Pronunciation
Noun

*skiwją n

  1. cloud
  2. sky
Inflection
neuter ja-stem
singular
nominative *skiwją
genitive *skiwjas, *skiwis
Descendants

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/skiw%C3%B4

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/skiwô

Proto-Germanic

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *(s)keuH (to cover, bedeck). Cognate with Old Irish ceó (sky, heaven).

Pronunciation
Noun

*skiwô m

  1. cloud coverhaze
  2. cloud
  3. sky
Inflection
masculine an-stem
singular
nominative *skiwô
genitive *skiwiniz
Derived terms
Descendants

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)k(%27)ew-&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/(s)k(‚)ew-.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)keuH-&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/(s)keuH-.

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https://pl.wiktionary.org/wiki/hose

hose (język angielski)

green hose (1.1)

wymowa:
bryt. IPA/həʊz/X-SAMPA/h@Uz/
amer. IPA/hoʊz/X-SAMPA/hoUz/
homofon: hoes
znaczenia:

rzeczownik

(1.1) wąż do podlewania lub gaszeniaszlauch
(1.2) pończochytrykoty
kolokacje:
(1.1) fire hose

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hose#English

hose

English

A US naval officer using a fire hose

English Wikipedia has an article on: hose

Etymology

From Middle English hose (leggings, hose), from Old English hosehosa (hose, leggings), from Proto-Germanic *husǭ (coverings, leggings, trousers), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kew (to cover). Compare West Frisian hoas (hose), Dutch hoos (stocking, water-hose)German Hose (trousers). Compare Tocharian A kać (skin), Russian  кишка́ (kiškágut)Ancient Greek κύστις (kústisbladder)Sanskrit कोष्ठ (koṭhaintestine). More at sky.

Pronunciation
Noun

hose (countable and uncountableplural hoses or hosen)

  1. (countable) flexible tube conveying water or other fluid.
  2. (uncountable) stocking-like garment worn on the legs; pantyhose, women’s tights.
  3. (obsolete) Close-fitting trousers or breeches, reaching to the knee.
Usage notes
  • (garment covering legs) Formerly a male garment covering the lower body, with the upper body covered by a doublet. By the 16th century hose had separated into two garments, stocken and breeches. Since the 1920s, hose refers mostly to women’s stockings or pantyhose
Derived terms
Verb

hose (third-person singular simple present hosespresent participle hosingsimple past and past participle hosed)

  1. (transitive) To water or spray with a hose.
  2. (transitive) To deliver using a hose.
  3. (transitive) To provide with hose (garment)
  4. (transitive) To attack and kill somebody, usually using a firearm.
  5. (transitive) To trick or deceive.
  6. (transitive, computing) To break a computer so everything needs to be reinstalled; to wipe all files.
  7. (transitive, sports) To cause an unfair disadvantage to a player or team through poor officiating; especially, to cause a player or team to lose the game with an incorrect call.
Derived terms

UWAGA!

Russian кишка́ (kiškágut)Ancient Greek κύστις (kústisbladder)Sanskrit कोष्ठ (koṭha, intestine)

A skąd w j. starogreckim i w sanskrycie wziął się dodatkowy dźwięk zapisywany jako T, nie zapominając o dodatkowym ubezdźwięcznieniu w postaci dodatkowego dźwięku zapisywanego jako H, także widocznym w tym ostatnim, hm?


…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hus%C7%AD

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/husǭ

Proto-Germanic

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *(s)kew (to cover, bewrap).

Pronunciation
Noun

*husǭ f

  1. An outer coveringhullshellhuskcase
  2. Covering for the legs; leggingstrousers
Inflection
ōn-stem
singular
nominative *husǭ
genitive *husōniz
Related terms
Descendants

…..

https://pl.wiktionary.org/wiki/shoe

shoe (język angielski)

shoe (1.1)

wymowa:
IPA/ʃuː/SAMPA/Su:/
wymowa amerykańska?/i
homofon: shoo
?/i
znaczenia:

rzeczownik

(1.1) but
(1.2) podkowa

czasownik

(2.1) założyć (but)
(2.2) podkuć

przymiotnik

(3.1) obuwniczy
odmiana:
(1.1–2) lp shoe; lm shoes
(2.1–2) shoe, shod/shoed, shodden/shod/shoed, shoes, shoeing
przykłady:
(1.1) Where is my left shoe? → Gdzie jest mój lewy but?
(3.1) Have you been to that new shoe shop? → Czy byłeś w tym nowym sklepie obuwniczym?
synonimy:
(1.1) horseshoe
związki frazeologiczne:
that’s where the shoe pinches
uwagi:
zobacz też: Indeks:Angielski – Ubrania

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/shoe#English

shoe

English

English Wikipedia has an article on: shoe

1. Crocodile skin shoes

Etymology

From Middle English shoshoo, from Old English sċōh (shoe), from Proto-Germanic *skōhaz (shoe”, literally „covering) (compare Scots shaeWest Frisian skoechLow German SchohDutch schoenGerman Schuh, DanishNorwegian and Swedish sko), from Proto-Indo-European *skewk (compare Tocharian B skāk (balcony)), from *(s)kew  (to cover). Eclipsed non-native Middle English sabatinesabatoun (shoe) from Medieval Latin sabatēnumsabatum (shoe, slipper) (compare Old Occitan sabatōSpanish zapato (shoe)).

The archaic plural shoon is from Middle English shon, from Old English scōnscōum (shoesdative plural) and scōna  (shoes’, genitive plural); it is cognate with Scots shuin (shoon).

Pronunciation
Noun

shoe (plural shoes or (archaic or regional) shoon)

  1. A protective covering for the foot, with a bottom part composed of thick leather or plastic sole and often a thicker heel, and a softer upper part made of leather or synthetic material. Shoes generally do not extend above the ankle, as opposed to boots, which do.
    Get your shoes on now, or you’ll be late for school.
  2. A piece of metal designed to be attached to a horse’s foot as a means of protection; a horseshoe.
    Throw the shoe from behind the line, and try to get it to land circling (a ringer) or touching the far stake.
  3. (card games) A device for holding multiple decks of playing cards, allowing more games to be played by reducing the time between shuffles.
  4. Something resembling a shoe in form, position, or function, such as a brake shoe.
    Remember to turn the rotors when replacing the brake shoes, or they will wear out unevenly.
    1. A band of iron or steel, or a ship of wood, fastened to the bottom of the runner of a sleigh, or any vehicle which slides on the snow.
    2. A drag, or sliding piece of wood or iron, placed under the wheel of a loaded vehicle, to retard its motion in going down a hill.
    3. The part of a railroad car brake which presses upon the wheel to retard its motion.
    4. (architecture) A trough-shaped or spout-shaped member, put at the bottom of the water leader coming from the eaves gutter, so as to throw the water off from the building.
    5. A trough or spout for conveying grain from the hopper to the eye of the millstone.
    6. An inclined trough in an ore-crushing mill.
    7. An iron socket or plate to take the thrust of a strut or rafter.
    8. An iron socket to protect the point of a wooden pile.
    9. (engineering) A plate, or notched piece, interposed between a moving part and the stationary part on which it bears, to take the wear and afford means of adjustment; called also slipper and gib.
    10. Part of a current collector on electric trains which provides contact either with a live rail or an overhead wire (fitted to a pantograph in the latter case).
  5. The outer cover or tread of a pneumatic tire, especially for an automobile.
Hyponyms
Derived terms
Related terms
See also
Verb

shoe (third-person singular simple present shoespresent participle shoeingsimple past shod or shoedpast participle shodden or shod or shoed)

  1. To put shoes on one’s feet.
  2. To put horseshoes on a horse.
  3. To equip an object with a protection against wear.
    The billiard cue stick was shod in silver.
Related terms

UWAGA!

Pamiętaj przy okazji porównywania słów, jak Szyć / S”yC’ i Szew / S”eW, Szewc / S”eW+C, co nastąpi niebawem…


…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/sk%C5%8Dhaz

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/skōhaz

Proto-Germanic

Etymology

Uncertain. Perhaps derived from *skehaną (to move quickly), from Proto-Indo-European *skek (to move quickly, jump).[1] A derivation from an alleged Proto-Indo-European verb *skewk, supposedly from *(s)kewH (to cover) (compare Proto-Germanic *skiwô (cloud cover; cloud; sky)), proposed in older literature, is dubious and not mentioned in Kroonen.

Pronunciation
Noun

*skōhaz m

  1. shoe
Inflection
masculine a-stem
singular
nominative *skōhaz
genitive *skōhas, *skōhis
Derived terms
Synonyms
Descendants
References
  1. Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “skōha-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 446

UWAGA!

Uncertain. Perhaps derived from *skehaną (to move quickly), from Proto-Indo-European *skek (to move quickly, jump).

Pisałem o tym już we wpisie nr 265, przy okazji omawiania źródłosłowów dla słowa Skok / Z/S+KoK.


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https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/skewk-&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/skewk-.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)kewH-&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/(s)kewH-.

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https://pl.wiktionary.org/wiki/hood

hood (język angielski)

hood (1.1)

hoods (1.5)

wymowa:
IPA/hʊd/
wymowa amerykańska?/i
znaczenia:

rzeczownik

(1.1) kaptur
(1.2) kołpakpokrywaosłona
(1.3) mot. dach składany
(1.4) amer. mot. maska silnika
(1.5) fot. osłona przeciwsłoneczna
(1.6) slang. warga sromowa
odmiana:
(1.1–5) lp hood; lm hoods
synonimy:
(1.4) bonnet
uwagi:
zobacz też: Indeks:Angielski – Ubrania

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hood

hood

English

English Wikipedia has articles on: hood

Pronunciation
Etymology 1

From Middle English hoodhod, from Old English hōd, from Proto-Germanic *hōdaz (cognate with Saterland Frisian  HoudWest Frisian/Dutch hoedGerman Low German HoodGerman Hut). Cognate with Proto-Iranian *xawdaH (hat)  (compare Avestan 𐬑𐬂𐬛 (xåda)Old Persian 𐎧𐎢𐎭 (x-u-d /xaudā/)), from Proto-Indo-European *ka (to cover). More at hat.

Noun

hood (plural hoods)

  1. covering for the head attached to a larger garment such as a jacket or cloak.
  2. A distinctively coloured fold of material, representing a university degree.
  3. An enclosure that protects something, especially from above.
  4. (automotive) A soft top of a convertible car or carriage.
  5. (US, automotive) The hinged cover over the engine of a motor vehicle: known as a bonnet in other countries.
  6. A metal covering that leads to a vent to suck away smoke or fumes.
Synonyms
Derived terms
See also
Verb

hood (third-person singular simple present hoodspresent participle hoodingsimple past and past participle hooded)

  1. To cover something with a hood.
    Antonym: unhood
Derived terms

(…)

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/h%C5%8Ddaz

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hōdaz

Proto-Germanic

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *ka (to cover, protect).

Pronunciation
Noun

*hōdaz m

  1. sheltercoverhood
Inflection
Declension of *hōdaz (masculine a-stem)
singular plural
nominative *hōdaz *hōdōz, *hōdōs
vocative *hōd *hōdōz, *hōdōs
accusative *hōdą *hōdanz
genitive *hōdas, *hōdis *hōdǫ̂
dative *hōdai *hōdamaz
instrumental *hōdō *hōdamiz
Derived terms
Related terms
Descendants

…..

https://pl.wiktionary.org/wiki/hat

hat (język angielski)

hat (1.1)

wymowa:
bryt. IPA/hat/
amer. IPA/hæt/SAMPA/h{t/
wymowa amerykańska?/i
wymowa brytyjska?/i
?/i
znaczenia:

rzeczownik

(1.1) kapelusz
(1.2) czapka
(1.3) typogr. kareta (^)
(1.4) typogr. cyrkumfleksdaszekznak diakrytyczny akcentu przeciągłego (ˆnad literą
odmiana:
(1.1–4) lp hat; lm hats
przykłady:
(1.1) He cocked his hat jauntily. → Przekrzywił wesoło kapelusz.
(1.2) She saw a conical hat with stars and a magic wand → Zobaczyła stożkowatą czapkę w gwiazdki i czarodziejską różdżkę.
kolokacje:
(1.4) hat matrix
synonimy:
(1.3) caret
(1.4) cirumflex
wyrazy pokrewne:
rzecz. hatter
przym. hatless
związki frazeologiczne:
top hat • to keep something under one’s hat
uwagi:
zobacz też: Indeks:Angielski – Ubrania

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hat

hat

English

 hat on Wikipedia

A rabbi in a kolpik hat.

Pronunciation
Etymology 1

From Middle English hat, from Old English hæt (head-covering, hat), from Proto-Germanic *hattuz (hat), from Proto-Indo-European *ka (to guard, cover, care for, protect). Cognate with North Frisian hat (hat)Danish hat (hat)Swedish hatt (hat)Icelandic hattur (hat)Latin cassis (helmet)Lithuanian kudas (bird’s crest or tuft)Avestan 𐬑𐬀𐬊 (xaodahat)Persian خود‎ (xudhelmet)Welsh caddu (to provide for, ensure). Compare also hood.

Noun

hat (plural hats)

  1. covering for the head, often in the approximate form of a cone or a cylinder closed at its top end, and sometimes having a brim and other decoration.
  2. (figurative) A particular role or capacity that a person might fill.
  3. (figurative) Any receptacle from which numbers/names are pulled out in a lottery.
    1. (figurative, by extension) The lottery or draw itself.
      We’re both in the hat: let’s hope we come up against each other.
  4. (video games) A hat switch.
  5. (typography, nonstandard, rare) The háček symbol.
  6. (programming, informal) The caret symbol ^.
  7. (Internet slang) User rights on a website, such as the right to edit pages others cannot.
  8. (Cambridge University slang, obsolete) A student who is also the son of a nobleman (and so allowed to wear a hat instead of a mortarboard).
Synonyms
Hyponyms
Derived terms
Terms derived from hat (noun)
Descendants
  • Sranan Tongo: ati
See also
Verb

hat (third-person singular simple present hatspresent participle hattingsimple past and past participle hatted)

  1. (transitive) To place a hat on.
  2. (transitive) To appoint as cardinal.

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hattuz

Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hattuz

Proto-Germanic

Etymology
EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This etymology is missing or incomplete. “Kroonen notes a problem where the stem of cassis is cassid-

From Proto-Indo-European *kanu-, from Proto-Indo-European *ka (to guard, cover, protect, care for). Cognate with Latin cassis (helmet).

Pronunciation
Noun

*hattuz m

  1. hat
Inflection
Declension of *hattuz (u-stem)
singular plural
nominative *hattuz *hattiwiz
vocative *hattu *hattiwiz
accusative *hattų *hattunz
genitive *hattauz *hattiwǫ̂
dative *hattiwi *hattumaz
instrumental *hattū *hattumiz
Derived terms
Related terms
Descendants
References

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Iranian/xawdaH&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Iranian/xawdaH.

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https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=%F0%90%AC%91%F0%90%AC%82%F0%90%AC%9B%F0%90%AC%80&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have an entry for Avestan/ xåda.

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https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=%F0%90%AC%91%F0%90%AC%80%F0%90%AC%8A%F0%90%AC%9B%F0%90%AC%80&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have an entry for Avestan/ xaoda.

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https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kad%CA%B0-&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/ka-.


UWAGA!

Coś z tymi danymi jest nie halo!

Skąd dźwięk zapisywany jako a nagle jakoś znalazł się w tzw. PIE, patrz *ka?

Skąd dźwięk zapisywany jako o nagle jakoś znalazł się w j. awestyjskim, patrz xaoda?

Dlaczego w tym przypadku nie działa tzw. prawo Brugmanna?


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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/custos#Latin

custos

Latin

Etymology

From Proto-Italic *kustots, further etymology unclear. The proposal that it is derived from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kew (to cover, wrap, encase), from *(s)kew (to cover, hide) (whence Ancient Greek κεύθω (kthōto conceal)Old English hȳdan (to hide, conceal, preserve)) raises questions about the development of the medial /st/. Some etymologists consider /st/ to be the regular outcome in Latin of PIE *dʰ-t, based on aestās and aestus, a position which requires analyzing the /ss/ found in participle forms such as iussus and fossus as the result of analogy with forms built on stems ending in other dental consonants[1]. On the other hand, Michiel de Vaan argues that, as the usual reflex of dental clusters in Latin is /ss/, it is better to analyze the /st/ of aestās and aestus as an analogical reformation, not as the regular outcome of *dʰ-t[2]. Therefore, de Vaan’s viewpoint is that the /st/ in custos is unexplained and the etymology unknown[3].

Pronunciation
  • (Classical) IPA(key)/ˈkuːs.toːs/[ˈkuːs.t̪oːs] or IPA(key)/ˈkus.toːs/[ˈkʊs.t̪oːs]
  • (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key)/ˈkus.tos/[ˈkus.t̪ɔs]
  • Note: vowel length uncertain due to unclear etymological and graphic evidence – see the Discussion page.
Noun

cū̆stōs m (genitive cū̆stōdis); third declension

  1. guardprotectorwatchman
  2. guardiantutor
  3. jailer
  4. keepercustodian
Declension

Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative cū̆stōs cū̆stōdēs
Genitive cū̆stōdis cū̆stōdum
Dative cū̆stōdī cū̆stōdibus
Accusative cū̆stōdem cū̆stōdēs
Ablative cū̆stōde cū̆stōdibus
Vocative cū̆stōs cū̆stōdēs
Derived terms
References
  1. Stuart-Smith, Jane (2004) Phonetics and Phonology: Sound Change in Italic (Oxford University Press), page 43; citing Leumann 1977: 168, Meiser 1998: 124
  2. De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 28
  3. De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 159

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cutis#Latin

cutis

Latin

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *kuHtzero-grade without s-mobile (?link) form of *(s)kewH (to cover). Cognates include Welsh cwd (scrotum)Lithuanian kutỹs (purse) and Old English hȳd (English hide). Related to obscūrus (dark, obscure) and culus (ass).

Pronunciation
Noun

cutis f (genitive cutis); third declension

  1. (anatomy) living skin
  2. rindsurface
  3. hideleather
Declension

Third-declension noun (i-stem, accusative singular in -em or -im, ablative singular in -e or ).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative cutis cutēs
Genitive cutis cutium
Dative cutī cutibus
Accusative cutem
cutim
cutēs
cutīs
Ablative cute
cutī
cutibus
Vocative cutis cutēs
Derived terms
Descendants

(from a Vulgar Latin form *cutina:)

References

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cassis#Latin

cassis

Latin

Etymology 1

From the Proto-Indo-European *ka (to guard, cover, care for, protect). Cognate with the Old English hætt (head-covering, hat). More at the English hat.

Alternative forms
Pronunciation
Noun

cassis f (genitive cassidis); third declension

  1. plumed metal helmet
Declension

Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative cassis cassidēs
Genitive cassidis cassidum
Dative cassidī cassidibus
Accusative cassidem cassidēs
Ablative casside cassidibus
Vocative cassis cassidēs
Derived terms
Descendants
References
Etymology 2

The origin is uncertain. Probably connected with catēna (chain).[1] Pokorny derives from Proto-Indo-European *kat- (to link or weave together).[2] Martirosyan connects cassis and catēna with Old Armenian ցանց (cʿancʿcasting-net) and derives all from a Mediterranean substrate.[3]

Noun

cassis m (genitive cassis); third declension

  1. hunting netsnaretoil
  2. spider web
  3. (plural) snaresplots
Declension

Third-declension noun (i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative cassis cassēs
Genitive cassis cassium
Dative cassī cassibus
Accusative cassem cassēs
cassīs
Ablative casse cassibus
Vocative cassis cassēs
References
  1. De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 97
  2. Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume II, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 534
  3. Martirosyan, Hrach (2016) , “Mediterranean substrate words in Armenian: two etymologies”, in Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard Hansen, Benedicte Nielsen Whitehead, Thomas Olander & Birgit Anette Olsen, editors, Etymology and the European Lexicon. Proceedings of the 14th Fachtagung of the Indogermanische Gesellschaft, Copenhagen, 17-22 September 2012[1], Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag, page 294

…..

Jak widzisz w powyższym przykładzie zanikł dźwięk zapisywany jako T. A teraz niby to samo, ale… jakoś tak nagle i niespodziewanie pojawia się dźwięk zapisywany jako R… Powrócę do tego jeszcze w następnej części…

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/obscurus#Latin

obscurus

Latin

Etymology

From ob + *scūrus (covered), from Proto-Indo-European *skuH-ro-, from *(s)kewH (to cover). Cognates include Latin cūlus (anus, buttocks)cutis (hide), maybe scūtumSanskrit स्कुनाति (skunā́tito cover)Ancient Greek σκύλος (skúloshide) and σκτος (skûtoshide, leather) and Old English scēo (sky)scuwa (shade, darkness, protection)English hidehousehosesky, shoe.

Pronunciation
Adjective

obscūrus (feminine obscūraneuter obscūrumcomparative obscūriorsuperlative obscūrissimus); first/second-declension adjective

  1. darkduskyshadowy
  2. indistinctunintelligibleobscure
  3. intricateinvolvedcomplicated
  4. unknownunrecognized
  5. (of character) reservedsecretclose
Declension

First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative obscūrus obscūra obscūrum obscūrī obscūrae obscūra
Genitive obscūrī obscūrae obscūrī obscūrōrum obscūrārum obscūrōrum
Dative obscūrō obscūrō obscūrīs
Accusative obscūrum obscūram obscūrum obscūrōs obscūrās obscūra
Ablative obscūrō obscūrā obscūrō obscūrīs
Vocative obscūre obscūra obscūrum obscūrī obscūrae obscūra
Derived terms
Related terms
Descendants
References

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Latin/scurus&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Latin/scurus.

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https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kuH-t-&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/kuHt-.

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https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/skuH-ro-&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/skuH-ro-.

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https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)kewH-&action=edit&redlink=1

Wiktionary does not yet have a reconstruction page for Proto-Indo-European/(s)kewH-.

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cuddio#Welsh

cuddio

Welsh

Etymology

From Proto-Celtic *koudeti, from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kew (to cover, wrap, encase),[1][2] +‎ -io (forming verbnouns). Cognate with Cornish cutheBreton cuzaffEnglish hideLatin custōsAncient Greek κεύθω (kthōto conceal)Sanskrit कुहरम् (kuharamcave).

Pronunciation
Usage notes
  • Despite being written as u, the first vowel here is /ɪ/ in all parts of Wales.
Verb

cuddio (first-person singular present cuddaf)

  1. to hide
Conjugation
Synonyms
Related terms
  • cudd (hidden)
Derived terms
Mutation
Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
cuddio guddio nghuddio chuddio
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.
References
  1. R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present) , “cuddio”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies
  2. J. Morris Jones, A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative (Oxford 1913), § 76 ii (1)

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%BA%CF%8D%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%82#Ancient_Greek

κύτος

Ancient Greek

Etymology

According to Beekes derived from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewH, related to Ancient Greek σκτος (skûtoshide, leather)Latin cutis (skin) and English hide.

Pronunciation
  • IPA(key)/ký.tos/ → /ˈky.tos/ → /ˈci.tos/
Noun

κῠ́τος  (kútosn (genitive κῠ́τους); third declension

  1. hollow
  2. any vessele.g. a jar, an urn, a vaseetc.
  3. (used of any hollow container) the occiput, the chest, a plant’s root, the uterus, an ox’s abomasum, the body in general, the trunk thereofmetaphorically the polisetc.
Declension
Derived terms
Descendants
References

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CF%83%CE%BA%E1%BF%A6%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%82#Ancient_Greek

σκτος

Ancient Greek

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewH (to cover). Cognates include Proto-Germanic *hūdiz (hide), Latin cutis (skin) and Lithuanian kiáutas (shell, case, envelop). Related also to ἐπισκύνιον (episkúnionskin of the brows)  and κύτος (kútosvessel).

Pronunciation
  • IPA(key)/skŷː.tos/ → /ˈsky.tos/ → /ˈsci.tos/
Noun

σκῦτος  (skûtosn (genitive σκῡ́τεος); third declension

  1. skinhide, especially dressed or tanned
  2. leather thongwhip
Inflection
Derived terms
References

…..

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%BA%CE%B5%CF%8D%CE%B8%CF%89#Ancient_Greek

κεύθω

Ancient Greek

Alternative forms
Etymology

A close relative to this verb is Proto-Germanic *hūdijaną (to hide, conceal). A further comparandum is Old Armenian սուզանեմ (suzanemto plunge, dive; to hide), but this would presuppose an initial palatal *ḱ-, which does not fit with the other words adduced, like Sanskrit कुहू (kuhūnew moon) and कुहर (kuharahole, cavity). Beside the words from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kew (to cover, wrap, encase), several form with root final *t are found, like κύτος (kútoshollow; vessel) and σκτος (skûtosskin, hide).

Pronunciation
  • IPA(key)/kěu̯.tʰɔː/ → /ˈkeɸ.θo/ → /ˈcef.θo/
Verb

κεύθω  (kthō)

  1. (poetic) I coverhide
    Synonyms: κᾰλῠ́πτω (kalúptō)κρῠ́πτω (krúptō)
  2. concealkeep hidden
Inflection
Derived terms
Further reading
  • κεύθω in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • κεύθω in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • κεύθω in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
  • κεύθω in Bailly, Anatole (1935) Le Grand Bailly: Dictionnaire grec-français, Paris: Hachette
  • κεύθω in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%BA%CF%8D%CF%83%CF%84%CE%B9%CF%82#Ancient_Greek

κύστις

Ancient Greek

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewH (to cover) or from κύω (kúō).

Pronunciation
  • IPA(key)/kýs.tis/ → /ˈkys.tis/ → /ˈcis.tis/
Noun

κύστις  (kústisf (genitive κύστεως); third declension

  1. bladder
Inflection
Derived terms
Descendants
References

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https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF#Sanskrit

स्कुनाति

Sanskrit

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewH (to cover), related to the second element of Latin obscurus (unknown, secret, unrecognized).[1]

Pronunciation
Verb

स्कुनाति  (skunā́ti) (root स्कुclass 9type P)

  1. to cover
  2. to pickplucktear
  3. to poke
References
  1. Buck, C. D. (2008). A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages. United States: University of Chicago Press, p. 493

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W następnej części upowszechnię Pra-Słowiańskie źródłosłowy dla tych powyższych postaci fielko-germańskich, fielko-greckich, fielko-indo-irańskich, itd.

W zależności jak odczytamy to ofitzjalnie odtfoszone W, mogą to być słowa jak Skóra, Kora, Skryć, Kryć, Ryć, Ścielić, Zaścielić, Zasłonić, Chować, Schować, itp.

4 uwagi do wpisu “268 Hide, sky, sceo, hose, shoe, hood, hat, custos, cutis, cassis, obscurus, cuddio, κύτος, σκῦτος, κεύθω, κύστις, skunā́ti i inne logiczne problemy ofitzjalnego jęsykosnaftzfa

  1. Pingback: 269 Okutać, gać, gacenie, gacić, ogacić, ogacać, zagacać, zagacić, gacie, gatki, gasić, gaszenie, zgaszenie, zgasić, gasnąć, gaśnięcie, zgasnąć, zgaśnięcie, dzēst, jāsáyati, bás, sbénnūmi i inne logiczne problemy ofitzjalnego jęsyk

  2. Pingback: 270 Kieszeń, kieszonka, kiść, кишка, kiszka, kisić, kiszenie, kisior, kiszonka, kisiel, kisel, skisły, skisnąć, zakisić, zakiszać, kwasić, zakwasić, kwas, zakwas, kwaśnica, kwaszonka, kwaśny, caseus, kváthate i inne logiczne problemy of

  3. Pingback: 271 Kuwiek, kuwiekać, kuwikać, skowyt, skowyk, skowytać, skowyczeć, hodowla, hodować, chów, chowanie, chować, *xovati, kumaty, kumać, skumać, schować, schowek, schowanie, zachowanie, zachować, zachowek i inne logiczne problemy ofitzjalnego jęs

  4. Pingback: 273 Kinąć, skinąć, skinienie, kidać, kiwka, kiwanie, kiwnąć, kiwać, ceveo, kować, skuwać, skuwanie, skuwka, zakuwać, zakuwanie, czuwanie, czuwać, чувам i inne logiczne problemy ofitzjalnego jęsykosnaftzfa | SKRBH

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