79 Secrets in the Dust – Persia Legacy of the Flames i indo-germańska, czyli niemiecka archeologia, lingwistyka i odwiecznie niepokalanie najprawdziwsza nazistowska propaganda

Secrets in the Dust – Persia Legacy of the Flames

„Vor langer Zeit, hinter den Wäldern jenseits der Berge”,..

…..czyli „Dawno, dawno temu, za lasami za górami”,.. ale zapisane w języku potomków odwiecznych i czystej krwi tzw. Indo-Germanów,.. które to przedziwne określenie jest używane przez nich do dziś dnia…

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indogermanische_Sprachen

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indogermanische_Ursprache

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indogermanen

Celowo zwracam uwagę na tych Indo-Germanów, czyli dzisiejszych Niemców, ich indo-germańskie, czyli niemieckie filmy, indo-germańskiego, czyli niemieckiego pierwszego króla nowożytnej Grecji, indo-germańskich, czyli niemieckich naukowców, archeologów, lingwistów, polityków… i zaprawdę powiadam Wam, na jedynie słusznie prawdziwą i niepodlegającą żadnej dyskusji,.. indo-germańską, czyli oficjalnie niemiecką, a tak naprawdę to… nazistowską wersję dziejów…

No dobrze, ale jaki to ma związek z Persją? Ano także ma…

Wszystko na co zwróciłem uwagę powyżej nie dotyczy tylko Grecji, a każdego przejawu czegokolwiek, co ma związek z tym nofocześnie naukofym indo-germańskim… bestialstwem.

Zakłamani potomkowie tych, którzy pierwsi wymyślili to indo-germańskie oszustwo nie mają przecież żadnego interesu, żeby nagle przyznać się do tego, że od dawna oni i ich „indo-germańscy” przodkowie prześladowali Słowian, kłamali, niszczyli lub fałszowali dowody i fakty, a wszystko po to, żeby ZNÓW PRZYWŁASZCZYĆ sobie cudze dzieje, osiągnięcia, tradycję, itd.

Wierzy ktoś w to, że zatwardziali i zawzięci „indo-germańscy” krętacze i inne niemieckie, czy raczej nazistowskie zbrodnicze bestie, mogliby ot tak nagle pod wpływem… no nie wiem… Wy+MioT+o”W sumienia przyznać się do popełnionych win?

Przecież to tak, jakby sami poderżnęli gardła i sobie i swoim „indo-germańskim” przodkom, a także swoim dzieciom, a dodatkowo jakby jeszcze jednocześnie nasrali sobie i im wszystkim na głowy…

Nigdy tego nie zobaczymy, ale tak, czy srak zgubi ich ich własne zakłamanie, pycha, wymieszane geny, ale szczególnie… ten ich kreolski Indogermanische Ursprache…

Obejrzyjcie trochę tych filmów co je zamieściłem poniżej, to zrozumiecie, że archeologia, językoznawstwo i wszystko, co wiąże się z tym ma swe korzenie właśnie w tym indo-germańskim, czyli prawdziwie czysto aryjsko-niemiecko-nazistowskim sposobie widzenia rzeczywistości…

A o jaki indo-germański, czyli tradycyjnie niemiecki i cywilizowany sposób widzenia rzeczywistości może mi chodzić? Poczytajcie sobie coś niecoś np. o Prusach… ale nie tych inaczej zwanych Prusakami, a o tych ludach, których Prusacy najpierw wytępili, a potem których tożsamość sobie przywłaszczyli…

https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragermanie

Zwracam uwagę na słowa których Prusacy najpierw wytępili, a potem których tożsamość sobie przywłaszczyli

A przechodząc do Persji, Iranu, itp, to ten wpis i komentarze pod nim także mogę być bardzo przydatne…

https://bialczynski.pl/2014/06/11/giacomo-benedetti-indo-europejska-lingwistyka-indo-iranscy-niszczyciele-glosek/

83 Persian Words common with Other Indo-Europeans.. LONG LIST of 320 words available see description

The Holy Gathas from the Holy Avesta

http://www.avesta.org/yasna/y0to8.htm
AVESTA: YASNA (Sacred Liturgy)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashem_Vohu

Ashem Vohu[pronunciation?] is one of two very important prayers in Zoroastrianism. The Ashem Vohu, after the Ahunavar is considered one of the basic, yet meaningful and powerful mantras in the religion. It is also at the end of most of the prayers in the Khordeh Avesta, except a certain few, most notably the Fravarane.[1]

Prayer

aṣ̌əm vohū vahištəm astī
uštā astī uštā ahmāi
hyat̰ aṣ̌āi vahištāi aṣ̌əm

Translation:

There are many translations and all attempts done by scholars do not give an authentic translation of the original with all its possible more deeper significance(s), because they all differ significantly. For example:

„Righteousness is best (of all that is) good.
As desired, what is being desired
is truth for him who (represents) best truth.”

or:

„Truth is best (of all that is) good.
As desired, as desired, truth
is for him who (represents) best truth.”[2]

or:

„Holiness (Asha) is the best of all good:
it is also happiness.
Happy the man who is holy with perfect holiness!”[3]

…..

Może zabawimy się tu w „tłumaczenie” tej cząstki indo, a właściwie „irano-germańskiej” Avesty, hm? Tekst na czerwono poprawiony zgodnie z a) tzw. rough breathing, czyli S>H, b) H=G, c) V/W=B, i d) prawem Brugmana, czyli o>a:

aṣ̌əm vohū vahištəm astī
oṣ̌əm v/bos/gū v/bosištəm ostī
uštā astī uštā ahmāi
ušto ostī ušto os/gmoi
hyat̰ aṣ̌āi vahištāi aṣ̌əm
s/gyot̰ oṣ̌oi v/bas/gištoi oṣ̌əm

… z tym, że także S=Z, G=K, B=P, a o=e,.. P>F, itd.

Ancient History Persian Empire Documentary

THE PERSIAN EMPIRE

Persepolis PERSIAN EMPIRE HISTORY of IRAN

ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS : Ancient Persia and Arabian Peninsula

Cyrus the Great

FULL DOCUMENTARY Lost Worlds Persepolis

At the Court of the King of Kings | Ancient Persia Documentary

Persepolis – A New Perspective (English)

Persepolis Recreated

persepolis by mano fonooni

Persepolis recreado- Takhte Jamshid

Persepolis 3D (a virtual reconstruction)

Reklamy

7 uwag do wpisu “79 Secrets in the Dust – Persia Legacy of the Flames i indo-germańska, czyli niemiecka archeologia, lingwistyka i odwiecznie niepokalanie najprawdziwsza nazistowska propaganda

  1. http://www.livius.org/sources/content/avesta/avesta-the-zoroastrian-creed/

    Avesta: the Zoroastrian creed

    The following text, which has with some justice been likened to the Christian „creed”, probably dates to the earliest days of Zoroastrianism, but seems to have undergone linguistic changes, because it is known in the relatively late Old Avestan language, and not in the old Gathic. Yasna 12 was probably meant to be recited before an assembly of the faithful. The translation was made by J. H. Peterson. The text is also known as Fravarane, which means, like the Latin Credo, „I declare”.

    Fravarane

    [1] I curse the Daevas.note

    I declare myself a Mazda-worshipper, a supporter of Zarathustra, hostile to the Daevas, fond of Ahura’s teaching, a praiser of the Amesha Spentas,note a worshipper of the Amesha Spentas. I ascribe all good to Ahuramazda, „and all the best,” Asha-endowed, splendid, xwarena-endowed, whose is the cow, whose is Asha, whose is the light, „may whose blissful areas be filled with light”.

    [2] I choose the good Spenta Armaitinote for myself; let her be mine. I renounce the theft and robbery of the cow,note and the damaging and plundering of the Mazdayasnian settlements. I want freedom of movement and freedom of dwelling for those with homesteads, to those who dwell upon this earth with their cattle. With reverence for Asha,note and (offerings) offered up, I vow this: I shall nevermore damage or plunder the Mazdayasnian settlements, even if I have to risk life and limb.

    [3] I reject the authority of the Daevas, the wicked, no-good, lawless, evil-knowing, the most druj-likenote of beings, the foulest of beings, the most damaging of beings. I reject the Daevas and their comrades, I reject the yatunote and their comrades; I reject any who harm beings. I reject them with my thoughts, words, and deeds. I reject them publicly. Even as I reject the [evil authorities], so too do I reject the hostile followers of the druj.

    [4] As Ahuramazda taught Zarathustra at all discussions, at all meetings, at which Mazda and Zarathustra conversed; – even as Zarathustra rejected the authority of the Daevas, so I also reject, as Mazda-worshipper and supporter of Zarathustra, the authority of the Daevas, even as he, the Asha-endowed Zarathustra, has rejected them.

    As the belief of the waters, the belief of the plants, the belief of the well-made [Original] Cow; as the belief of Ahuramazda who created the cow and the Asha-endowed Man; as the belief of Zarathustra, the belief of Kavi Vishtaspa,note the belief of both Frashaostra and Jamaspa; as the belief of each of the Saoshyantsnote – fulfilling destiny and Asha-endowed – so I am a Mazda-worshipper of this belief and teaching.

    [5] I profess myself a Mazda-worshipper, a Zoroastrian, having vowed it and professed it. I pledge myself to the well-thought thought, I pledge myself to the well-spoken word, I pledge myself to the well-done action.

    I pledge myself to the Mazdayasnian religion, which causes the attack to be put off and weapons put down; Asha-endowed; which of all religions that exist or shall be, is the greatest, the best, and the most beautiful: Ahuric, Zoroastrian. I ascribe all good to Ahuramazda.

    This is the creed of the Mazdayasnian religion.

    Polubienie

    • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fravashi

      Fravashi (fravaši/frəˈvɑːʃi/) is Iranian symbol that from the Avestan language term for the Zoroastrian concept of a personal spirit of an individual, whether dead, living, and yet-unborn. The fravashi of an individual sends out the urvan (often translated as ‚soul’) into the material world to fight the battle of good versus evil. On the morning of the fourth day after death, the urvan is imagined to return to its fravashi, where its experiences in the material world are collected to assist the next generation in their fight between good and evil.

      In the 9/10th-century works of Zoroastrian tradition (the so-called Pahlavi books), Avestan   fravashi continues as Middle Persian fravard (and -w- forms, fraward etc),  fravahr,   fravash  or fravaksh.[1] The last days of a year, called frawardigan, are dedicated to the fravashis. The first month of the year as well as the 19th day of each month are considered under the protection of, and named after, the fravashis. The winged-disc symbol of Zoroastrianism is traditionally interpreted as a depiction of a fravashi.

      Etymology

      The word fravashi is commonly perceived to have var- „to choose,” as its root. From reconstructed  *fravarti (/rt/ clusters in Avestanusually appear as /š/), fravashi could then mean „one who has been selected (for exaltation).” The same root, in the sense of „to choose/profess a faith,” is found in the word fravarane, the name of the Zoroastrian credo.

      Other interpretations take other meanings of var- into consideration: Either as var- „to cover” that in a bahuvrihi with fra- „to ward” provides „protective valor,” or a derivation from var- „to make/be pregnant” which gives „promoter of birth, birth-spirit.” One interpretation considers a derivation from vart- „turn” hence „turning away, departing, death.” The Epistles of Zadspram, a 10th century exegetical work, derives fravashi from fra-vaxsh „to grow forth.”[2] (…)

      Fravahar _____ „I choose Good”

      Zartosht777
      Published on Mar 10, 2007

      The word „Fravahar” actually is Pahlavi, or Middle Persian, and derives from ancient Iranian (Avestan) word Fravarane, which means, „I choose”. The choice is that of the Good, or the Good Religion of Zarathushtra. Another related word is Fravarti or Fravashi, which may derive from an alternative meaning of „protect,” implying the divine protection of the guardian spirit, the Fravashi. From these words come the later Middle Persian words Fravahr, Foruhar, or Fravahar.

      Fravahar, the meaning and origin.
      – The forward Pulling force. Symbol from Zoroastrian Heritage. Older man for wisdom of age.
      – 3 rows of feather on the wing for good thought, good word, good deed: motive of flight and advancement.
      – Lower wing: bad thought, bad word and bad deed, which cause misery for human being and should be put behind.
      – Positive force and negative force: proceed toward the good and turn away from the bad.
      – The middle ring: eternity of the universe and the eternal nature of the soul.
      – Hand facing up: there is only one direction we should choose: Upwards.
      – Holding a ring: Ring of covenant, royalty and faithfulness

      Zoroastrianism is popularly known as the Parsi religion. Asho Spitaman Zarathushtra or Zoroaster, the Avestan Manthran (placed somewhere between 1300 and 660 B.C.) who lived in Eastern Iran, received Divine inspiration from Ahura Mazda (the wise Lord, God) Himself and taught his religion till the age of 77, when he was martyred by the Turanian invaders. He taught the religion of One God, as against the primitive animism and blood sacrifices. The essence of this religion is humata-manashni (good thoughts), hookhta-gavashni (good words) and havarashtra-kunashni (good deeds).

      When Ahura Mazda revealed Himself to Zoroaster and gave him the teachings and the command, Zoroaster asked Him to give him a symbol. Fire was the symbol given since it burns away all evils and can never be made impure. This led to the development of the symbol „The Cauldron of Fire” which is manifest as a sacred fire maintained in Fire Temples called Atar-Beheram that is not allowed to be extinguished. Ash taken from this sacred fire is applied on the forehead by devout worshippers. Fire, to the Zoroastrians, represents God and typifies the divine spark within.

      Ahura Mazda is often pictorially represented as an old man with a cap and a beard, as also wings. This winged symbol represents a fravashi (or fravahar or farohar) or guardian spirit. It represents the essence of God within people, as well as the ‚spiritual self’ or Ahura Mazda.

      Polubienie

    • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faravahar


      Faravahar


      Faravahar relief in Persepolis.

      The Faravahar (Persianفروهر‎‎) also known as Farr-e Kiyani (فر کیانی) or Asho Farohar is one of the best-known symbols of Iran. It symbolizes Zoroastrianism and Iranian nationalism.[1][2]

      The Faravahar is the most worn pendant among Iranians and has become a secular national symbol, rather than a religious symbol. It symbolizes good thoughts (پندار نیک pendār-e nik), good words (گفتار نیک goftār-e nik) and good deeds (کردار نیک kerdār-e nik), which are the basic tenets and principles of Zoroastrianism.

      Etymology

      The New Persian word فروهر is read as forouhar or faravahar (it was pronounced as furōhar in Classical Persian). The Middle Persian forms were frawahr (Book Pahlavi: plwʾhl, Manichaean: prwhr), frōhar (recorded in Pazend as‎; it is a later form of the previous form), and fraward (Book Pahlavi: plwlt’, Manichaean: frwrd), which was directly from Old Persian *fravarti-.[3][4] The Avestan language form was fravaṣ̌i.

      Polubienie

    • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_language

      Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] (About this sound listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in IranAfghanistan(officially known as Dari since 1958),[8] and Tajikistan (officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[9] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

      The Persian language is classified as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenid Empire.[10][11][12] Its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary European languages.[13] Persian gets its name from its origin at the capital of the Achaemenid EmpirePersis (modern-day Fars Province), hence the name Persian (Farsi).[14] A Persian-speaking person may be referred to as Persophone.[15]

      There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in IranAfghanistan, and Tajikistan. For centuries, Persian has also been a prestigious cultural language in other regions of Western AsiaCentral Asia, and South Asia by the various empires based in the regions.[16]

      Persian has had a considerable (mainly lexical) influence on neighboring languages, particularly the Turkic languages in Central AsiaCaucasus, and Anatolia, neighboring Iranian languages, as well as ArmenianGeorgian, and Indo-Aryan languages, especially Urdu (a register of Hindustani). It also exerted some influence on Arabic, particularly Bahrani Arabic,[17]while borrowing much vocabulary from it after the Arab conquest of Iran.[10][13][18][19][20][21][22]

      With a long history of literature in the form of Middle Persian before Islam, Persian was the first language in the Muslim world to break through Arabic‚s monopoly on writing, and the writing of poetry in Persian was established as a court tradition in many eastern courts.[16] Some of the famous works of Persian literature are the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the works of Rumi, the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the Panj Ganj of Nizami Ganjavi, the Divān of Hafez and the two miscellanea of prose and verse by Saadi Shirazi, the Gulistan and the Bustan.

      Etymology

      Persian language name in Persian

      In Persian, the language is known by several names:

      • Western PersianParsi (پارسی‎ pārsi) or Farsi (فارسی‎ fārsi or زبان فارسی‎ zabān-e fārsi) has been the name used by all native speakers until the 20th century. In recent decades some authors writing in English have referred to the variety of Persian spoken in Iran as Farsi;[24][25] although the name Persian is also still widely used.[26][27][28]
      • Eastern PersianDari Persian (دری‎ darī or فارسی دری‎ fārsi-ye dari) was originally a synonym for Fārsi but since the latter decades of the 20th century has become the name for the variety of Persian spoken in Afghanistan, where it is one of the two official languages; it is sometimes called Afghan Persian in English.[29]
      • Tajiki (тоҷикӣتاجیکی‎ tojikī or забони тоҷикӣ / فارسی تاجیکی‎ zabon-i tojiki) is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by the Tajiks.

      Persian language name in English

      Persian, the historically more widely used name of the language in English, is an anglicized form derived from Latin *Persianus < Latin Persia < Greek Περσίς Persís „Persia”,[30] a Hellenized form of Old Persian Pārsa.[31] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term Persian as a language name is first attested in English in the mid-16th century.[32]Native Iranian Persian speakers call it Fārsi.[33] Farsi is the Arabicized form of Pārsi, subsequent to Muslim conquest of Persia, due to a lack of the phoneme /p/ in Standard Arabic (i.e., the /p/ was replaced with an /f/).[34][35][36] The origin of the name Farsi and the place of origin of the language which is Fars Province is the Arabicized form of Pārs.[34][35][36] In English, this language has historically been known as Persian, though Farsi has also gained some currency. Farsi is encountered in some linguistic literature as a name for the language, used both by Iranian and by foreign authors.[37]

      In modern English the word Farsi refers to the language while Parsi (or Parsee) describes  Zoroastrians, particularly in South Asia. (…)

      Polubienie

    • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avestan

      Example phrases

      The following phrases were phonetically transcribed from Avestan:[12]

      Avestan English Comment
      tapaiti It’s hot Can also mean „he is hot” or „she is hot” (in temperature) ToPiC’ Sie”
      šiiauuaθa You(p) move
      vō vatāmi I understand you(p)  WieDza, gdzie D>T
      mā vātaiiaθa You(p) teach me Literally: „You let me understand” Mi WieDz+ieC’/T’
      dim naiiehi You lead him/her
      dim vō nāiiaiieiti He/she lets you(p) lead him/her Present tense
      mā barahi You carry me  MNie BieR”
      nō baraiti He/she carries us  oN / oNa BieR”e
      θβā dim bāraiiāmahi We let him/her carry you Present tense My BieR”+eMy
      drauuāmahi We run
      dīš drāuuaiiāmahi We let them run Present tense
      θβā hacāmi I follow you
      dīš hācaiieinti They accompany them Literally: „They let them follow”
      ramaiti He rests
      θβā rāmaiiemi I calm you Literally: „I let you rest”

      Note: „you” is singular unless marked with a (p) for plural.

      Polubienie

    • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Iranian_language

      Proto-Iranian language

      Proto-Iranian, or Proto-Iranic,[1] is the reconstructed proto-language of the Iranian languages branch of Indo-European language family and thus the ancestor of the Iranian languages such as PashtoPersianSogdianZazakiOssetianMazandaraniKurdish and others. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Iranians, are assumed to have lived in the early 2nd millennium BC, and they are usually connected with the Proto-Indo-Iranians and early Andronovo archaeological horizon.

      Proto-Iranian was a satem language descended from the Proto-Indo-Iranian language, which in turn, came from the Proto-Indo-European language. It was likely removed less than a millennium from the Avestan language, and less than two millennia from Proto-Indo-European.[2]

      Dialects

      Skjærvø postulates that there were at least four dialects of Proto-Iranian, two of which are attested by texts:

      1. Old Northwest Iranian – unattested, ancestor of Ossetian
      2. Old Northeast Iranian – unattested, ancestor of Middle Iranian Khotanese and modern Wakhi
      3. Old Central Iranian – attested, includes Avestan and Median
      4. Old Southwest Iranian – attested, includes Old Persian, ancestor of modern Persian

      Phonological correspondences

      PIE[3] Av PIE Av
      *p p *ph₂tḗr „father” pitar- „father”
      *bʱ b *réh₂tēr „brother” bratar- „brother
      *t t *túh₂ „thou” tū- „thou”
      *d d *dóru „wood” dāuru „wood”
      *dʱ d *oHneh₂- „grain” dana- „grain”
      *ḱ s *m̥t „ten” dasa „ten”
      z *ǵónu „knee” zānu „knee”
      *ǵʰ z *ǵʰimós „cold” ziiā̊ „winterstorm”
      *k x ~ c *kruh₂rós „bloody” xrūda „bloody”
      *g g ~ z *h₂éuges- „strength” aojah „strength”
      *gʱ g ~ z *dl̥h₁ós „long” darəga- „long”
      *kʷ k ~ c *ós „who” kō „who”
      *gʷ g ~ j *ou- „cow” gao- „cow”
      Proto-Indo-Iranian Avestan[4] Old Persian Persian Kurdish Vedic Sanskrit
      *Háĉwas ‘horse’ aspa asa (native word)[5] اسب asb (< Median) asp aśvaḥ
      *bʱag- baγa baj- (baji; „tribute”) باج bâj (tax) bac bhag- (bhaga)
      *bʱráHtā- ‘brother’ brātar- brātar- برادر barâdar bira(der) bhratŗ
      *bʱumi ‘earth, land’ bumi بوم bum -bû(m) bhumi
      *martya ‘mortal, man’ mašiia martya مرد mard (man) mêr(d) (man) martya
      *mā́Has- ‘moon’ mā̊ māha ماه mâh (moon, month) mang (moon), meh (month) masa
      *vasara ‘spring’ vaŋri vahara بهار bahâr be/ihar vasara ‘morning’
      *arta ‘truth’ aša arta راست râst (correct) rast ŗta
      *draugʱ- ‘falsehood’ druj draug- دروغ dorugh ‘lie’ d(i)ro, derew ‘lie’ druh-
      *sáumas ‘pressed (juice)’ haoma hōm sóma

      Polubienie

    • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Indo-Iranian_language

      Proto-Indo-Iranian language

      Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic[1] is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Iranic branch of Indo-European. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Indo-Iranians, are assumed to have lived in the late 3rd millennium BC, and are often connected with the Sintashta culture of the Eurasian Steppe and the early Andronovo archaeological horizon.

      Proto-Indo-Iranian was a Satem language, likely removed less than a millennium from the late Proto-Indo-European language, its ancestor, and in turn removed less than a millennium from the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda, its descendant. It is the ancestor of the Indo-Aryan languages, the Iranian languages, and the Nuristani languages.

      Descriptive phonology

      Proto-Indo-Iranian consonant segments
      Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Laryngeal
      dental/alveolar post-alveolar first second
      Plosive voiceless *p *t *ĉ *č *k
      voiced *b *d *ĵ *ǰ *g
      aspirated * * *ĵʰ *ǰʰ *
      Fricative voiceless *s *š *H
      voiced (*z) (*ž)
      Nasal *m *n
      Liquid *l *r *
      Semivowel *y *w
      PII vowel segments
      High *i *ī         *u *ū
      Low     *a *ā

      In addition to the vowels, *H, and *r̥ could function as the syllabic core.

      Two palatal series

      Proto-Indo-Iranian is hypothesized to contain two series of stops or affricates in the palatal to postalveolar region.[2] The phonetic nature of this contrast is not clear, and hence they are usually referred to as the primary or first series (ĉ *ĵ *ĵʰ, continuing Proto-Indo-European palatovelar *ḱ *ǵ *ǵʰ) and the second or secondary series (č *ǰ *ǰʰ, continuing Proto-Indo-European plain and labialized velars, *k, *g, *gʰ and *kʷ, *gʷ, *gʷʰ, in palatalizing contexts). The following table shows the most common reflexes of the two series (Proto-Iranianis the hypothetical ancestor to the Iranian languages, including Avestan and Old Persian):[3][4]

      PII Sanskrit Proto-Iranian Avestan Old Persian Nuristani
      ś ([ɕ]) *ts s θ ċ ([ts]) / š
      j ([ɟ]) *dz z d j ([dz]) / z
      *ĵʰ h ([ɦ])
      c č č č
      j ([ɟ]) ǰ ǰ ǰ / ž
      *ǰʰ h ([ɦ])

      Laryngeal

      Proto-Indo-European is usually hypothesized to have had three to four laryngeal consonants, each of which could occur in either syllabic or non-syllabic position. In Proto-Indo-Iranian, the laryngeals merged as one phoneme /H/. Beekes suggests that some instances of this /H/ survived into Avestan as unwritten glottal stops.[5]

      Accent

      Like Proto-Indo-European and Vedic Sanskrit (and also Avestan, though it was not written down[6]), Proto-Indo-Iranian had a pitch accent, indicated by an acute accent over the accented vowel.

      Historical phonology

      The most distinctive phonological change separating Proto-Indo-Iranian from Proto-Indo-European is the collapse of the ablauting vowels e, *o, *a into a single vowel, Proto-Indo-Iranian a (but see Brugmann’s law). Grassmann’s lawBartholomae’s law, and the Ruki sound law were also complete in Proto-Indo-Iranian.

      A fuller list of some of the hypothesized sound changes from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranian follows:

      • The Satem shift, consisting of two sets of related changes. The PIE palatals *k̂ *ĝ *ĝʰ are fronted or affricated, eventually resulting in PII *ĉ, *ĵ, *ĵʰ, while the PIE labiovelars *kʷ *gʷ *gʷʰ merge with the velars *k *g *gʰ.[7]
      PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
      *k̂m̥tóm *ĉatám śatám satəm centum „hundred”
      *ĝónu *ĵā́nu jā́nu zānu genū „knee”
      *ĝʰéi-mn̥ *ĵʰimá- himá- zima- hiems „winter” / „snow”
      *kʷó- *ká- ká- quis „who?, what?”
      *gʷou- *gau- go gau- bōs, bov- „cow”
      *gʷʰormó- *gʰarmá- gharmá- garəma- formus „warmth, heat”
      • The PIE syllabic liquids *l̥, *r̥ merge as *r̥.[8]
      PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
      *wĺ̥kʷo- *wŕ̥ka- *vŕ̥ka- vəhrka- lupus „wolf”
      • The PIE syllabic nasals *m̥ *n̥ merge with *a.[8]
      PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
      *k̂m̥tóm *ĉatám śatám satəm centum „hundred”
      *mn̥tó- *matá matá- mēns, ment- „thinking”
      • Bartholomae’s law: an aspirate immediately followed by a voiceless consonant becomes voiced stop + voiced aspirate. In addition, dʰ + t > dzdʰ.[9]
      PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
      *ubʰto- *ubdʰa- ubdaēna „woven” / „made of woven material”
      *urdʰto- *urdzdʰa- vr̥ddʰá- vrzda- „complete/mature”
      *augʰ-tá- *augdʰá- *óhate *augda „he said”
      • The Ruki rule: *s is retracted to *š when immediately following *r *r̥ *u *k or *i. Its allophone *z likewise becomes *ž.[8]
      PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
      *wers- *warš- varṣman- verrūca „summit”
      *pr̥sto- *pr̥šta- pr̥ṣṭhá- paršta „back” / „backbone”
      *ǵeus- *ĵauš- joṣati zaošō gustus „taste”
      *kʷsep- *kšap- (< *ksep) kṣāp xšap „darkness”
      *wis- *wiš- viṣa- viša- vīrus „poison”
      *nisdo- *nižda- nīḍa- nīdus „nest”
      • Before a dental occlusive, *ĉ becomes *š and *ĵ becomes *ž. *ĵʰ also becomes *ž, with aspiration of the occlusive.[10]
      PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
      *h₂ok̂tṓ *oĉtṓ *aštā́ aṣṭaú ašta octō „eight”
      *h₃mr̥ĝt- *mr̥ĵd- *mr̥žd- mr̥ḍīká- mərəžḍīka „wiped away” / „pardon”
      *uĝʰtó- *uĵʰtó- *uždʰá- ūḍhá- vectus „carried”
      • The sequence *ĉs was simplified to *šš.[11]
      PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
      *h₂ék̂s- *áĉs- *ášš- ákṣa- aši- axis „shoulder” / „axle”
      • The „second palatalization” or „law of palatals”: *k *g *gʰ develop palatal allophones *č *ǰ *ǰʰ before the front vowels *i, *e.[9]
      PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
      *kʷe *ke *ča ca ča -que „and”
      *gʷíh₃weti *gíh₃weti *ǰī́wati jī́vati jvaiti vīvit „lives”
      *gʷʰénti *gʰénti *ǰʰánti hánti jainti fendit „slays”
      PIE pre-PII PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
      *deh₃tór-m *deh₃tṓr-m *dātā́ram dātā́ram dātāram datōrem „giver” (acc. sg.)
      • The vowels *e *o merge with *a. Similarly, *ē, *ō merge with *ā. This has the effect of giving full phonemic status to the second palatal series *č *ǰ *ǰʰ.
      PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
      *kʷe *ča (< *če) ca ča -que „and”
      *gʷʰormó- *gʰarmá- gharmá- garəma- formus „heat”
      *bʰréh₂tēr *bʰrā́tār bhrā́tā brātā frāter „brother”
      *wōkʷs *wākš vāk vāxš vōx „voice”
      • In certain positions, laryngeals were vocalized to *i. This preceded the second palatalization.[13][14]
        • Following a consonant, and preceding a consonant cluster
      PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
      *ph₂trei *pitrai pitre fədrōi patrī „father” (dative singular)
      • Following a consonant and word-final
      PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
      *-medʰh₂ *-madʰi -mahi -madi (1st person plural middle ending)
      • The Indo-European laryngeals all merged into one phoneme *H, which may have been a glottal stop. This was probably contemporary with the merging of *e and *o with *a.[15]
      PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Latin
      *ph₂tér *pHtā́ pitā́ ptā pater „father” (nominative singular)
      • According to Lubotsky’s Law, *H disappeared when followed by a voiced nonaspirated stop and another consonant:[16]
      PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan
      *bʰeh₂g- *bʰag- ( < *bʰaHg- ) bʰag- baxša „distribute”

      Subsequent sound changes

      Among the sound changes from Proto-Indo-Iranian to Indo-Aryan is the loss of the voiced sibilant *z, among those to Iranian is the de-aspiration of the PIE voiced aspirates.

      Proto-Indo-European and Indo-Iranian Phonological Correspondences[17]
      PIE OInd/VS Av PIE OInd/VS Av
      *p > p p *ph̥₂tḗr „father” pitā́ „father” pitar- „father”
      *b > b b *bél- „strong” bálam „strength”
      *bʰ > bh b *réh₂tēr „brother” bhrā́tār- „brother” brātar- „brother
      *t > t t *tuHóm „thou” tuvám „thou” tvəm „thou”
      *d > d d *dóru „wood” dā́ru „wood” dāru- „wood”
      *dʰ > dh d *oHnéh₂- „grain” dhānā́- „grain” dāna- „grain”
      *ḱ > ś s * „ten” śa „ten” dasa „ten”
      > j z *ǵónu „knee” jā́nu „knee” zānu- „knee”
      *ǵʰ > h z *ǵʰimós „cold” himá- „cold, frost” zəmaka- „winterstorm”
      *k > k ~ c x ~ č *kruh₂rós „bloody” krūrá- „bloody” xrūra- „bloody”
      *ket „may he run” tačat̰ „may he run”
      *g > g ~ j g ~ ǰ *h₂éuges- „strength” ójas- „strength” aoǰah „strength”
      *h₂ugrós „strong” ugrá- „strong” ugra- „strong”
      *gʰ > gh ~ h g ~ ǰ *dl̥Hós „long” dīrghá- „long” darəga- „long”
      *dleHistos „longest” draǰišta- „longest”
      *kʷ > k ~ c k ~ č *ós „who” káḥ „who” kō „who”
      *e „and” ca „and” ́ča „and”
      *gʷ > g ~ j g ~ ǰ *ou- „cow” gav- „cow” gau- „cow”
      *ih₃wós „alive” jīvá- „alive” OPerǰīva- „living”
      *gʷʰ > gh ~ h g ~ ǰ *gʷʰnénti „strike” (pl.) ghnánti „strike” (pl.)
      *gʷʰénti „strikes” hánti „strikes” ǰainti „strikes”
      *s > s s ~ h *septm̥ „seven” saptá „seven” hapta „seven”
      *h₁ésti „is” ásti „is” asti „is”
      *y > y y *yugóm „yoke” yugam „yoke” yuga- „yoke”
      *w > v v *wéǵʰeti „drives, rides” váhati „drives” vazaiti „travels”
      *m > m m *méh₂tēr „mother” mātár- „mother” mātar- „mother”
      *n > n n *nós „us” nas „us” nō „us”
      *l > l ~ r r *kʷeleti „moves” carati „moves” caraiti „moves”
      *r > r r *réh₂tēr „brother” bhrā́tār- „brother” brātar- „brother
      *n̥ > a a * „un-„ a „un-„ a „un-„
      *m̥ > a a *tóm „hundred” śatám „hundred” satəm „hundred”
      *l̥ > ərər *wĺ̥kʷos „wolf” vŕ̥ka- „wolf” vəhrka- „wolf”
      *r̥ > ərər *ŕ̥d- „heart” hŕ̥d- „heart” zərəd- „heart”
      *i > i i *linékʷti „leaves” riṇákti „leaves” irinaxti „releases”
      *e > a a *déḱm̥ „ten” dáśa „ten” dasa „ten”
      > ā ā *h₂nr „man” nā „man” nā „man”
      *a > a a *h₂éǵeti „drives” ájati „drives” azaiti „drives”
      > ā ā *méh₂tēr „mother” mātā́ „mother” mātar- „mother”
      *o > a ~ ā a ~ ā *ǵómbʰos „tooth, peg” jā́mbha „tooth, tusk”
      *ǵónu „knee” jānu „knee” zānu- „knee”
      > ā ā *oHnéh₂- „grain” dhānā́- „grain” dāna- „grain”
      *u > u u *yugóm „yoke” yugám „yoke” yuga- „yoke”
      > ū ū *mū́s „mouse” mū́ṣ- „mouse” NPer mūs „mouse”
      *h₁ > *h₁ésti „is” ásti „is” asti „is”
      *h₂ > *h₂ŕ̥tḱos „bear” ŕ̥kṣa- „bear” arəša- „bear”
      *h₃ > *h₃ókʷs(i) „eye” ákṣi „eye” aši „eye”
      *h₄ > *h₄órǵʰis „testicle” ərəzi- „testicle”
      Proto-Indo-Iranian Old Iranian (OPAv) Vedic Sanskrit
      *Háĉwas „horse” Av, OP aspa aśva
      *bʰāgá „portion, share” Av bāga, OP bāga- bhāgá
      *bʰráHtā- „brother” Av, OP brātar bhrātr̥
      *bʰūmī „earth, land” OP būmiš bhūmī
      *martya „mortal, man” OP martiya martya
      *mā́Has „moon” Av mā̊, OP māha māsa
      *wāsara „early” Av vaŋri (dat.sg.), OP vāhara „spring” vasar „morning”
      *r̥ta „truth” Av aša, OP arta r̥ta
      *dʰráugʰas „falsehood” Av draoγa, OP drauga droha
      *sáumas „pressed (juice)” Av haoma soma

      See also

      Polubienie

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